Exodus Chapters 29 and 30—Natan’s Commentary Notes

Exodus 29

Exodus 29:1, Hallow. Heb. qadash meaning “to dedicate, consecrate, set-apart, observe as holy, to be treated as sacred or majestic.”

Exodus 29:12, Horns of the altar. The four horns of the altar of sacrifice was the place where the blood of atonement was sprinkled (also Lev 4:4, 17, 18, 25, 30, 34; 8:15; 9:9; 16:18). 

But there’s more. Horn is the Hebrew word qeren meaning “horn, hill or ray.” This word is used to describe the rays of light rays emanating from the face of Moses after his encounter with YHVH (Exod 34:29) and the horns of an animal (Ps 69:31). In ancient cultures, the horn was a metaphor for physical strength or spiritual power (Deut 33:17; 2 Sam 22:3; Ps 18:2). Elsewhere, YHVH is referred to as man’s “horn of salvation” meaning he is the strength of our salvation. The Hebrew word for salvation is yesha meaning “deliverance, rescue, safety, welfare, victory, prosperity.” The root of yesha is the verb yasha meaning “to save, to deliver, to give victory.” Not only is YHVH called our “horn of salvation” in the Tanakh, but this designation is applied to Yeshua as well in the Testimony of Yeshua (Luke 1:69). Interestingly, Yeshua is a derivative of the Hebrew name Yehoshua (or Joshua), which also derives from yasha. 

It should be evident from this quick study that the horns of the altar are a picture of Yeshua, who is the horn or strength of our salvation and who shed his blood for our sins on the altar of the cross. 

This being the case, why then are there four horns on the altar? This is likely symbolic of the four attributes of Yeshua, even as the four colors of cloth used throughout the tabernacle prophetically symbolize the same thing. Crimson speaks to Yeshua’s humanity, purple to his kingship, blue to his divinity, and white to his sinlessness or righteousness. 

Additionally, the Jewish sages view the four horns as symbolizing the four corners of the earth, for, in Hebraic thought, the earth is nothing more than a large altar dedicated to Elohim. (See The ArtScroll Tehilim/Psalms commentary on this verse and notes at Ps 118:27.) 

More importantly, the horns on the four corners of the altar prophetically and symbolically point to the fact that Yeshua’s blood poured out at the cross saves all humans (from the four corners of the earth who would trust in him) from their sins.

Exodus 29:13, 17, (also Lev 1:9 cp. Matt 23:26; 2 Cor 7:1) Entrails/inwards…legs. In the process of cleansing the animal to be sacrificed, there are two lessons here for us. First, Yeshua was perfect, totally clean and spotless Lamb of Elohim sacrificed for the sins of man. Second, the saints are to become living sacrifices (Rom 12:1–2). This means we are to be like Yeshua—totally clean on both the inside and outside. Yeshua rebuked the religious hypocrites of his day for being like whited sepulchres and for being like cups that were clean on the outside but dirty on the inside (Matt 23:26–27). As the sacrifice was laid on the alter (Exod 29:18), and as Yeshua went to the altar of the cross, so we must lay our lives down as a living sacrifice as well.

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Daniel on Intercessory Prayer

The following notes are reflections on Daniel’s prayer of intercession for Israel in Daniel 9:3–19. This is an example for us to follow on how to pray for our loved ones and our nation.

Too often, so-called “prophetic intercessors” in the mainstream church spend their time confessing the sins of other people, while asking YHVH to forgive the nation. Instead, they should follow Daniel’s example and confess their own sins and those of the apostate, lukewarm, worldly church of which they are a part and from which these non-profit prophets often greatly profit financially! What’s wrong with this picture?

Verse 3, Set my face to the Lord. Daniel had inclination, a heart’s desire and a will to seek YHVH. Ask and it will given, seek and you shall find, knock and it will be opened unto you (Matt 7:7).

Verse 3, Prayer…supplication…fasting…sackcloth and ashes. In seeking YHVH, Daniel sublimated his soul (mind, will and emotion) to his personal spirit, so that he could seek YHVH in humility with his spirit, not his soul, in total subjection to and open to the Spirit of Elohim.

Verse 4, Prayed…made confession. He confessed the greatness of Elohim through praise and worship.

Verse 4, His covenants and mercy. Daniel appealed to the past covenants or promises that YHVH had made to his saints. He established legal grounding for his subsequent requests based on the promises and covenants that YHVH had made previously with his people.

Verse 4, His commandments. The Torah is the foundation or basis for all of YHVH’s covenants. When YHVH’s people keep his commandments they are blessed and when they break them he turns his face away from and against his people, and they reap the consequences of their sinful actions which is divine judgment. Only when his people confess their sins and turn their hearts and faces back to YHVH and his Torah will there be healing for the nation (2 Chron 7:14 cp. vv. 17–19). 

Verses 5–16, Sinned and committed iniquities. Daniel then made confession of sin. He didn’t say “they have sinned,”  but “we have sinned.” He included himself, even though he was only a child when taken captive to Babylon and was not personally responsible for Israel’s plight. Though not personally and directly responsible for Israel’s plight of captivity, he was still suffering the consequences of the sins of his forbears, and, in humility, he included himself in Israel’s corporate or national guilt.

Verse 17, Now therefore. Finally, Daniel makes his request known to Elohim. Assuredly, request was made only after much time had passed performing the previous activities.

Verse 20, Now while I was. While speaking, praying, confessing “my” sin and the sin of “my people” and presenting his supplication, YHVH answered Daniel.

 

The Twice Daily Sacrifices and the Saints Daily Devotions

Exodus 29:38–42, In the morning…at twilight.(See also Lev 1:1–17 and Num 28:1–15.) Heb. erev meaning “twilight or between the evenings.” According to Alfred Edersheim, the morning sacrifice was offered at 9 AM and the evening sacrifice was offered at approximately 6 PM, since Israel is closer to the equator making the day and night portions on average closer to twelve hours each (The Temple–Its Ministry and Service, p. 108, by Alfred Edersheim). He then goes on the show that by the time of Yeshua, the Jews had changed the time of the evening sacrifice, so that it commenced earlier. By this time, the lamb was killed at about 2:30 PM with the pieces being laid on the altar about 3:30 PM. The whole evening sacrifice service would last until about 4:00 PM (ibid., pp 108–109).


This twice daily offering was known as the continual burnt offering (Heb. olah tamiyd), and was offered at the door of the tabernacle (verse 42). This sacrificial offering has great spiritual implications for the serious disciple of Yeshua and relates to his or her daily life. The word continual (Heb. tamiyd) means “continually.” The Hebrew word for burnt offering is olah meaning “ascent, stairway or steps,” and derives from the basic Hebrew verb, alah, meaning “to go up, climb or ascend.” In this offering, the fire consumes the entire animal, and the word olah refers to the smoke of this whole burnt offering ascending to heaven, which is a “sweet aroma” to YHVH (verse 41). The olah was an offering or gift (Lev 1:2, Heb. qorban)to YHVH and could be a bull, goat, ram, turtle dove or a pigeon as long as it was a perfect specimen without defect (Lev 1). If an Israelite sinned, he could bring this gift-offering to the door of the tabernacle where he would place his hands upon the head of the animal, after which the priests would slaughter it, and sprinkle its blood around the altar of sacrifice just inside the door of the tabernacle (Lev 1:2, 4, 5). The meat was then prepared and arranged on the altar and entirely burnt (Lev 1:6–17). When the sinner laid his hands on the animal, it was as if he were transferring his sins onto the innocent, blemish-free animal, where upon YHVH accepted it as an atonement for the person’s sin (Lev 1:4).

The writer of Hebrews clearly teaches that this offering (along with all the other offerings in the sacrificial system) pointed to Yeshua, our Great High Priest, whose atoning death on the cross fulfilled all the types and shadows of the Levitical, sacrificial system (Heb 4:14–5:7; 7:1–10:18).

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