Notes on Exodus Chapters One and Two

Overview of the Book of Exodus (Main Themes)

Exodus (Heb. Shemot) is the book whose principle theme is redemption—Israel’s deliverance from Egypt. Here we learn how YHVH saves his people and we are shown that his people are redeemed in order to worship him. 

The Theme of Redemption

Say, therefore, to the sons of Israel, “I am YHVH, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage. I will also redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments. Then I will take you for My people, and I will be your Elohim; and you shall know that I am YHVH your Elohim, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. I will bring you to the land which I swore to give to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and I will give it to you for a possession; I am YHVH.” (Exod 6:6–8, emphasis added)

Worship

And he said, “Certainly I will be with you, and this shall be a token unto you, that I have sent you, when you have brought forth the people out of Egypt, you shall serve Elohim upon this mountain.” (Exod 3:12, emphasis added)

And I say unto you, “Let my son go, that he may serve me, and if you refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay your son, even your firstborn.” (Exod 4:23, emphasis added)

And you shall say unto him, “YHVH Elohim of the Hebrews has sent me to you, saying, ‘Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness, and, behold, until now you would not hear.’” (Exod 7:16, emphasis added)

The Basic Outline of Exodus

Chapters 1–6 show us the need for redemption.

Chapters 7–11 show us the power or might of the Redeemer as the ten plagues are poured out upon Egypt.

Chapters 12–18 show us the character of redemption; purchased by blood and emancipated by power.

Chapters 19–24 teaches us the duty of the redeemed.

Chapters 25–40 instructs us about the restoration of the redeemed—provisions are made for the failures of the redeemed when they fall spiritually.

The Metaphors in Exodus

Egypt is a metaphor for the world, the place of sin and bondage where one is held captive before being delivered or redeemed by the power of YHVH and the blood of Yeshua, the Lamb of Elohim. It is interesting to note that ­although Egypt was the land of science and art, it was simultaneously the land of death in that their religion that is was morbidly fixated with death. 

Pharaoh is a metaphor for Satan, a merciless taskmaster who opposes the people of YHVH every step of the way.

Pharaoh’s magicians represents demonic spirits that are active in the world and are doing Pharaoh’s (Satan’s) bidding in opposing Israel, the people of Elohim, and Elohim’s plans.

Moses is a prophetic metaphor for Yeshua (his first coming), the Deliverer of his people from the bondage and power of sin, death and hell, which is the power of the enemy, Satan.

The blood of the lamb on the door posts is a metaphor for Yeshua, the Redeemer, whose death on the cross atoned for man’s sins causing YHVH’s judgment against sin to pass over his people.

The crossing of the Red Sea is a metaphor the saint’s union with Messiah Yeshua in his death and resurrection via the ritual of tevilah (immersion or baptism) at a mikvah (a gathering of waters).

The journey through the wilderness is a metaphor for the trials and testing that occur during the redeemed believer’s spiritual walk through this life with YHVH’s provision to meet every need and his protection from every attack of the adversary.

The giving of the Torah represents one’s spiritual walk after having exited spiritual Egypt, and teaches YHVH’s people the importance of obedience and submission that they owe him for freeing them from Satan and the world. He is now their new Master.

The Tabernacle of Moses with its furnishings is a picture, layout or blueprint of the steps in YHVH’s plan of redemption (salvation) for mankind and the steps in man’s spiritual maturation into intimacy with the Father through Yeshua the Messiah. It is like a giant gospel tract!

Exodus 1:11, Taskmaster…afflict them. Taskmaster literally means “gangs of government officials who exacted or levied tribute or taxes from the Israelites by forcing them to work as serfs.” These government bureaucratic goons forced the Israelites, through affliction, into compulsory service involving government works projects. The Egyptians imposed a fascistic socialistic system upon the Israelites, which was a form of slavery. 

Exodus 1:19–21, Midwives said. The righteous, Elohim-fearing midwives (v. 17), chose to obey Elohim rather than to follow government edicts that violated the laws of the Creator. This necessitated them lying to the Egyptians to preserve the lives of the innocent babies. This teaches us that it is not only acceptable to lie, but it is even commendable in YHVH’s eyes, to preserve life (see also Josh 1:17 where Rahab lied to protect the Israelite spies from certain death, and 1 Sam 20:6 where David had Jonathan lie for him to save his life from the murderous Saul). For their work of preserving innocent lives, YHVH blessed the midwives (vv. 20–21). In reality, the midwives were pro-life, anti-abortion activists who were given a place of honor in YHVH’s hall off fame for the righteous.

Exodus 2:16; 3:1 (also 18:1), Priest of Midian. Heb. kohen meaning “priest, principal officer or chief ruler.” In the days prior to the Levitical priesthood, the Bible considers a father to be the priest of his family (see Exod 19:22, 24). Since Torah mentions three times that Jethro was the priest of Midian, evidently he was more than just a spiritual leader to his family; he was likely also a regional leader.

 

Overview of the Book of Exodus (Main Themes)

Exodus (Heb. Shemot) is the book whose principle theme is redemption—Israel’s deliverance from Egypt. Here we learn how YHVH saves his people and we are shown that his people are redeemed in order to worship him.

The Theme of Redemption

Say, therefore, to the sons of Israel, “I am YHVH, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from their bondage. I will also redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great judgments. Then I will take you for My people, and I will be your Elohim; and you shall know that I am YHVH your Elohim, who brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians. I will bring you to the land which I swore to give to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and I will give it to you for a possession; I am YHVH.” (Exod 6:6–8, emphasis added)

Worship

And he said, “Certainly I will be with you, and this shall be a token unto you, that I have sent you, when you have brought forth the people out of Egypt, you shall serve Elohim upon this mountain.” (Exod 3:12, emphasis added)

And I say unto you, “Let my son go, that he may serve me, and if you refuse to let him go, behold, I will slay your son, even your firstborn.” (Exod 4:23, emphasis added)

And you shall say unto him, “YHVH Elohim of the Hebrews has sent me to you, saying, ‘Let my people go, that they may serve me in the wilderness, and, behold, until now you would not hear.’” (Exod 7:16, emphasis added)

The Basic Outline of Exodus

Chapters 1–6 show us the need for redemption.

Chapters 7–11 show us the power or might of the Redeemer as the ten plagues are poured out upon Egypt.

Chapters 12–18 show us the character of redemption; purchased by blood and emancipated by power.

Chapters 19–24 teaches us the duty of the redeemed.

Chapters 25–40 instructs us about the restoration of the redeemed—provisions are made for the failures of the redeemed when they fall spiritually.

The Metaphors in Exodus

Egypt is a metaphor for the world, the place of sin and bondage where one is held captive before being delivered or redeemed by the power of YHVH and the blood of Yeshua, the Lamb of Elohim. It is interesting to note that ­although Egypt was the land of science and art, it was simultaneously the land of death in that their religion that is was morbidly fixated with death.

Pharaoh is a metaphor for Satan, a merciless taskmaster who opposes the people of YHVH every step of the way.

Pharaoh’s magicians represents demonic spirits that are active in the world and are doing Pharaoh’s (Satan’s) bidding in opposing Israel, the people of Elohim, and Elohim’s plans.

Moses is a prophetic metaphor for Yeshua (his first coming), the Deliverer of his people from the bondage and power of sin, death and hell, which is the power of the enemy, Satan.

The blood of the lamb on the door posts is a metaphor for Yeshua, the Redeemer, whose death on the cross atoned for man’s sins causing YHVH’s judgment against sin to pass over his people.

The crossing of the Red Sea is a metaphor the saint’s union with Messiah Yeshua in his death and resurrection via the ritual of tevilah (immersion or baptism) at a mikvah (a gathering of waters).

The journey through the wilderness is a metaphor for the trials and testing that occur during the redeemed believer’s spiritual walk through this life with YHVH’s provision to meet every need and his protection from every attack of the adversary.

The giving of the Torah represents one’s spiritual walk after having exited spiritual Egypt, and teaches YHVH’s people the importance of obedience and submission that they owe him for freeing them from Satan and the world. He is now their new Master.

The Tabernacle of Moses with its furnishings is a picture, layout or blueprint of the steps in YHVH’s plan of redemption (salvation) for mankind and the steps in man’s spiritual maturation into intimacy with the Father through Yeshua the Messiah. It is like a giant gospel tract!

 

Nuggets from Parashat Va’eira

The Word of Elohim is like apples of gold in a picture from of silver. (Proverbs 25:11)

YHVH’s People to Be Spared From His Wrath—Not Tribulation

Exodus 8:22; 9:4, 26, Set apart the land of Goshen. YHVH separated the children of Israel from the Egyptians in that he spared them from the last seven plagues. What does this teach us about the judgments of Elohim? The Israelites were made to go through the first three plagues only. Do YHVH’s people ever experience trials and tribulations? (Read Deut 8:2–5; 2 Tim 3:12; Heb 11, the entire chapter; Rev 7:9–14.) Do the saints need spiritual refinement in order to help them become the chaste bride of Yeshua who is without the spot and wrinkle of sin? (Read Eph 5:27; 1 Cor 3:9–17.) The saints may go through tribulation, but they will not have to experience Elohim’s wrathful judgments unto death upon a wicked world (1 Thess 1:10; 5:9 cp. Rev 6:17; 7:2–3). Other examples of the saints going through tribulation, but then being delivered before Elohim poured out his final wrath upon the wicked include Lot in Sodom, and Noah at the flood.

Exodus 8:23, I will make a difference. As YHVH intensifies his judgments on a nation to get that nation’s attention, he, at the same time, will highlight his true servants by affording them special protection from the judgments. He delivered both Noah and Lot from his severe judgments upon the surrounding heathen rebels. This will occur in the end times when YHVH will allow some of his servants to escape his judgments (Ezek 9:4; Luke 21:36; Rev 7:4; 9:4).

Exodus 10:23, But all the children of Israel. YHVH protected the children of Israel from the most severe plagues that fell upon Egypt (Exod 8:22; 9:4, 6; 10:23; 11:7; 12:13). Similarly, YHVH spared Noah and Lot from the utter destruction that fell in their days. In the last days, YHVH will protect his Continue reading

 

The Ten Commandments—The Torah’s Great Cornerstone

Exodus 20:1–17, An Overview of the Ten Words (Commandments)

The Ten Words or Ten Commandments by which they are more commonly known are but the mighty cornerstone of the 613 commandments of the Torah.

Torah scroll open 2

The Jewish sages teach that all 613 are implied in the Ten; or that the Ten can be expanded into 613. The Tanakh (Old Testament) and Jewish writings contain a number of phrases that express the quintessential essence of the Torah. One of these best-known passages naming several of these phrases is in the Jewish Talmud: “[R.] Simlai said, ‘613 commandments were given to Moses—365 negative mitzvot (commandments), the same as the number of days in the year, and 248 positive mitzvot, the same as the number of parts in a man’s body. David came and reduced them to eleven (Ps 15), Isaiah to six (Isa 33:15), Micah to three (Mic 6:8), Isaiah again to two—“Observe and do righteousness” (Isa 56:1). Then Amos came and reduced them to one, “Seek me and you shall live” (Amos 5:4)—as did Habakkuk, “The righteous one will attain life by his trusting [or by faith] faithfulness (Hab 2:4)”’ (Makkot 23b–24a, abridged, from the Jewish New Testament Commentary, by David Stern, p. 565).

We see some of these same Torah summation-type statements in the Testimony of Yeshua. For example, the phrase, “the just shall live by faith” is found in three passages of the Testimony of Yeshua (Rom 1:17; Gal 3:11; Heb 10:38); In Leviticus 19:18, we find the phrase, “you shall love your neighbor as yourself,” which is the summation of the last five of the famous Ten Commandments. This in itself is a summation of all of the 613 Torah commandments that relate to human relationships, which we see in Yeshua’s Continue reading

 

What’s involved in coming into YHVH’s Presence? Much food for thought!

Worship 580391

Exodus 19:10, Consecrate them today. How did Israel, as a bride-to-be, prepare herself to meet with YHVH? How are YHVH’s people now to be preparing themselves for their spiritual marriage with Yeshua? (Compare Exodus 19:10 with Revelation 19:7–9.) What is the righteousness of the saints (mentioned in Rev 19:8)? Righteousness is defined in Psalms 119:172 as, “… all thy [Torah] commandments are righteousness.” If what the Scriptures define as righteousness (i.e., the Torah) was “nailed to the cross,” as is popularly taught, then who is in error? The Scriptures or those who teach against YHVH’s Torah laws?

Discussion A. Why is it essential to study the example of the children of Israel preparing themselves to come into the presence of YHVH in Exodus 19? After all, if Yeshua did it all for us, we can just come boldly before the Father’s throne anytime, anyway we want, right (Heb 4:16)?

Let’s explore this concept a little to see what the Bible has to say about it.

Paul says in I Corinthians 10:11,

Now all these things happened to them [i.e., the children of Israel] as examples, and they were written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the ages have come. (See also Rom 15:4.)

The writer of Hebrews has something similar to say in his prefatory remarks to his statement in Hebrews 4:16 about coming boldly before the throne of YHVH through the merits of the sinless righteousness of Yeshua our High Priest. In the preceding several verses, the author draws upon the example of the children of Israel (Heb 4:1–10) as an example for us not to follow. They were a faithless and disobedient lot in that they rebelled against the Torah-word of Elohim.

Then in Hebrew 4:11, the author starts with the connecting word “therefore,” indicating Continue reading

 

An Overview of YHVH’s Marriage to Israel as Fulfilled in the Lives of Redeemed Believers

Exodus 19–31 and the Marriage of YHVH to Israel—Types and Shadows

YHVH married ancient Israel at Mount Sinai.

Read Ezekiel 16:1–14

Redeemed believers are preparing to be the spiritual bride of Yeshua.

For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Messiah. (2 Cor 11:2)

Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready. And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints. And he saith unto me, “Write, Blessed are they which are called unto the marriage supper of the Lamb.” And he saith unto me, “These are the true sayings of Elohim.” (Rev 19:7–9)

What are the prophetic implications of and spiritual parallels between YHVH’s first marriage to ancient Israel and YHVH-Yeshua’s upcoming marriage to his bride—the saints who keep his (Torah) commandments and have faith in him (Rev 12:17; 14:12)?

Marriage 33370184

In his Parable of the Ten Virgins, Yeshua likens his bride to the five wise virgins who had oil in their lamps. Oil is a Hebraism for the Spirit of Elohim and the Torah. In other words, the prospective bride of Yeshua will walk in the Spirit of Elohim and the truth of Torah, which Yeshua tells us is a mandatory requirement if one is to have a relationship with YHVH (John 4:23–24; 1 John 2:3–6). We learn from the fact that since five foolish virgins who weren’t allowed into the wedding supper that not all redeemed believers will be the bride of Yeshua. Some believers will be the least in YHVH’s kingdom and some will be the greatest (Matt 5:19). According to Yeshua, how obedient one is to the Torah will determine one’s level of rewards in his eternal kingdom (Matt 5:19).

Between Exodus 19 and 24, we find recorded the steps Israel took to enter into a marital Continue reading

 

Elohim is serious about the Sabbath!

Sabbath, Remember 33398107

Exodus 16:4–30, The Sabbath. This chapter chronicles YHVH’s efforts to literally force an irreverent, unruly and disobedient nation to keep the seventh day Sabbath. He did so in a most poignant way—through food and hunger. It’s as if he were instructing the stiff-necked and rebellious Israelites that if they refused to follow his Sabbath instructions, they would literally go hungry. “If you don’t obey me, you don’t eat.” This shows the gravity the Creator places on the Sabbath command. Yet despite these clear instructions, most in the Babylonian church today, like the rebellious children of Israel of old, refuse to obey YHVH’s clear instructions regarding the Sabbath. Instead, they prefer to believe the doctrines of men proffered to them by their spiritual leaders that purport to invalidate the Sabbath command. Paul’s sage observation in Romans 8:7 describes the situation perfectly: “Because the carnal mind is enmity against Elohim: for it is not subject to the [Torah] law of Elohim, neither indeed can be.” In our day, the same question can still be asked of followers of Yeshua that YHVH asked of the Israelites at that time, “How long do you reuse to keep my commandments and my laws?” (Exod 16:28).

This chapter is almost entirely dedicated to instructions pertaining to preparing for the Sabbath. This shows the priority that YHVH places on Sabbath observance for his people. Also note that these instructions are given many weeks before the official giving of the Torah (or law of Moses) at Mount Sinai. This is but one of the many examples of YHVH revealing key aspects of his Torah-law before he gave it the Israelites in one legal codified corpus at Mount Sinai.

Exodus 16:4, On the sixth day…prepare. (Also note verse 23.) The sixth day of the week was to be a day of preparation for the Sabbath, so that the Sabbath rest could be complete allowing for man to fully focus on being spiritually edified in the presence of his Creator without the distractions of food preparation and the other mundane duties of life.

Exodus 16:29, Let every man remain. The essential point of this prohibition is to not go out and gather manna on the Sabbath, but to rest on this day from the routine work of supporting one’s family. This command didn’t prohibit the Israelites from gathering together on the Sabbath for purposes of teaching, worship, prayer, fellowship or spiritual edification or else YHVH’s command for the Israelites to gather together on the Sabbath for a “holy convocation” (Lev 23:2) would be contradictory. Were this command merely an injunction to not leave one’s dwelling place on the Sabbath, then Yeshua and the apostles visiting synagogues on the Sabbath would have been a violation of this Torah command. Isaiah 58:13 could be viewed as the corollary passage to Exodus 16:29. There YHVH instructs his people not to profane the Sabbath by doing their own pleasure, not doing their own ways, and not speaking their own words on this day. Instead, it is a holy day to YHVH and a day to focus on and honor him.