Are you too salty for those around you?

Holy Provocateurs—YHVH’s Human Agents to Wake People Up

From the beginning of time, YHVH has raised up secret human agents and sprinkled them—like grains of salt in a wound—in various places at various times to be his mouthpieces to warn humans to repent of their sin and turn to him. These divinely appointed pot-stirrers have been thorns in the sides of both sinners and YHVH’s lukewarm saints. They are his agent provocateurs slipped into the ranks of humanity to incite, provoke and stir humans to action. Are you such a person, or do you know someone like this, who, quite frankly, is nettlesome and irksome to be around? Whether we like it or not, these individuals are simply YHVH’s mail carriers, carry his message of repentance to a sin-sick world.

These agents, who are part of the Creator’s secret service, are unusually zealous and passionate for YHVH. Their mission is to warn people away from evil and to encourage, no, rather irritate them toward him. These people have never been popular, but have typically been barely tolerated by their contemporaries, if not outright hated and rejected. Typically they are loners and have few if any friends. At the very least, they have been nettlesome thorns in the sides of those around them, and at the most have been hated, despised, hunted down and even killed, while often being viewed as a pariah and anathema to society. The problem is that this is their calling and mission, and they cannot run from it. They are YHVH’s divine mail carriers, and to reject them is to reject the Creator himself. Such biblical holy provocateurs whose divine mission was to warn people of impending judgment and to call them to repentance include such notable biblical personalities as Noah, Elijah, Jonah, Jeremiah, John the Baptist, Stephen and, most notably, Yeshua the Messiah himself. Despite their unpopularity, these provocateurs have been significantly impactful at chiding, if not scaring, people toward repentance and a more holy, Elohim-centered spiritual walk.

Elohim’s provocateurs are often viewed by those around them as holier-than-thou kill-joys, legalists, Jesus-freaks, Bible thumpers, religious fanatics and zealots, and the list of pejorative terms thrown at them goes on and on. It boils down to this: If you can’t deal with the sin issues in your life, then project your guilty conscience onto the preacher who is calling you to account by labeling him or her with some derogatory epithet. In this way, you somehow justify your sin by transferring onto them your anger as you resort to ad hominen attacks. As a longtime pastor, I witnessed the employment of this tactic countless times by disgruntled congregants. If they could not argue against the biblical Truth you were preaching, then they would attack you personally by criticizing your style of preaching, the length of your sermon, your hairstyle, how hard the chairs were or how hot the building was in summer…and when they had exhausted their arsenal of verbal grenades, off they huffed to terrorize another pastor and congregation somewhere else. 

 All of this is because YHVH’s provocateurs have the dubious distinction of acting as a sort of societal conscience and moral compass as they go about constantly telling people to turn away from sin and the idolatrous pleasures of this mortal existence and to turn back to the true north of YHVH’s Truth. They passionately declare that the love of this world is enmity with Elohim, and their call to turn away from the mortal, sinful pleasures that are the heartbeat of sinners and to lukewarm saints, and to turn to righteousness and holiness is a perennially unpopular message.

Not everyone is called to the ministry of being a heaven-sent secret agent provocateur, and very few people understand much less appreciate the role that these troublesome individuals play in YHVH’s spiritual economy. Moreover, why would anyone choose to be a divine thorn in the side of humanity? Such people only become targets for hatred, derision, scorn, mocking, rejection, persecution and even death. Who in their right mind would ever choose this as a spiritual vocation?

And being a provoker has never been a popular job. Only a smattering of people have will every heed the divinely mandated warnings of these provocateurs. These human hammers in the hand of the Almighty to smash the hard rock of the sinner’s heart (Jer 23:29) are in the company (though not at the same level) of such biblical giants of Noah, Elijah, John the Baptist, Yeshua, Stephen Paul, and the apostles and all of the other prophets. Even Yeshua’s own brothers rejected him until after his resurrection which was undeniable proof of his divinity.

These provokers never chose this calling; rather, YHVH chose them and compelled them to fulfill their mission to warn those around them. Till the present time, he has had such people sprinkled all over the earth, strategically positioned in all social stratum and geographical locations. They are there to warn sinners to repent, and on judgment day, no one will be able to accuse Elohim of not warning them. 

The following is a list of Scriptures that refer to such people whose divine mission is to stir up, provoke, incite, irritate (involving contention and disputation) one another to love and to good works as per Hebrews 10:24, which is the flagship passage of this teaching. There we read,

And let us consider one another in order to stir up [i.e., to provoke, irritate, incite] love and good works…

To be sure, some of YHVH’s provokers are more salty than others. As we all know, salt in a festering wound, though a cleansing agent, can be a painful irritant. With this in mind, Yeshua declared of his disciples,

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Korah and His Rules for Radicals

Numbers 16:1–3, Took men…rose up…gathered together against. The story of Korah and company is a classic example of a group of malcontents and rebels attempting to usurp divinely appointed and the arrogantly seizing authority and power for their own selfish purposes. To this day, the theme and variation of this scenario continues to play itself out as one band of humans vies for power at the expense of others be it in the political, economic or religious arenas. The originator of this modus operandi is Satan the devil himself, the arch enemy and adversary of both YHVH and man, and it goes all the way back to the beginning and the serpent in the tree. Korah and his comrades took their rules for radicals out of Satan’s playbook. Let’s now analyze Satan’s means of seizing power versus the righteous, biblical way that YHVH’s servanrts earn the privilege of being a godly leaders.

In Numbers 16:1–3, we see a progression (or downward spiral) of actions on the part of Korah and his rebels. First they separated themselves from fellowship, then they rose up against Moses, then they gathered together others of like mind,and finally they falsely accused leadership of wrong doings. This is the world’s formula for achieving political (humanistic) power and domination. It is the opposite method of advancing in YHVH’s kingdom where the way down is the way up; that is, when one humbly lays one’s life down in service, spiritual reward, advancement and blessing will occur for that person (Matt 20:27; 23:10). There is no greater example of this then Yeshua the Messiah, when he diminished himself and came to this earth to become a man and a servant. This is the supreme example for us all to emulate.

Therefore if there is any consolation in Messiah, if any comfort of love, if any fellowship of the Spirit, if any affection and mercy, fulfill my joy by being like-minded, having the same love, being of one accord, of one mind. Let nothing be done through selfish ambition or conceit, but in lowliness of mind let each esteem others better than himself. Let each of you look out not only for his own interests, but also for the interests of others. Let this mind be in you which was also in Messiah Yeshua, who, being in the form of Elohim, did not consider it robbery to be equal with Elohim, but made Himself of no reputation, taking the form of a bondservant, and coming in the likeness of men. And being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself and became obedient to the point of death, even the death of the cross. Therefore Elohim also has highly exalted Him and given Him the name which is above every name, that at the name of Yeshua every knee should bow, of those in heaven, and of those on earth, and of those under the earth, and that every tongue should confess that Yeshua Messiah is Lord, to the glory of Elohim the Father. (Phil 2:1–11)

Unlike Yeshua, who was divinely appointed for his mission, rebels like Korah arrogantly appoint themselves to be leaders and then go about attempting to seize power through subversion and violence. First, they separate themselves from fellowship (or the group of which they are a part). Then they seek out other like-minded rebels, and then rise up in defiance and accusation against legal or godly leadership. If their coup is successful, this tactic will catapult these self-appointed perpetrators into positions of political (and economic) power. 

On the other hand, the way of attaining to positions of spiritual power the godly way is laid out in Acts 2:42–47, where the followers of Yeshua continued steadfastly in the apostles’ doctrine, in fellowship, breaking bread together, in prayer and served one another by sharing their time, talent and treasure. Out of this righteous atmosphere, godly and Spirit-appointed leaders naturally rose to the surface like cream rising to the top of milk. The result was real spiritual power, authority and anointing from heaven. This was not power based on usurpation, human pride, degradation of others and a hubris-based, shameless self-promotion. No. The attainment of righteous authority can only occur as people forsake not the assembling of themselves together (Heb 10:25), function according to their divine gifts and spiritual callings within the spiritual body of Yeshua, while submitted one to another as they walk in the spiritual light YHVH’s instructions in righteousness, that is, the Torah.

Yeshua confirmed the biblical way to servant-leadership, when he taught that true power in the kingdom of Elohim is a result of one laying one’s life down for one’s brother, while serving him in love and humility. Such a person will be elevated to a position of influence and authority because he has learned to serve others in love, altruism and selflessness rather than seeking to be served, which stems from a heart of selfishness, pride and, often, covetousness and greed (Matt 20:25–28; 23:11–12).

The Jewish sages note that Korah and his band of malcontents had come under the power of resentment, which grew and festered until open rebellion broke out. Korah was a fellow Levite and cousin of Aaron, who was among those “overlooked” for the priesthood, and who were relegated to being “mere” assistants to the priests. He was also a firstborn of his household (Exod 6:21), and when the tabernacle sacrificial service was inaugurated Aaron’s sons replaced the firstborn Israelites in offering sacrifices. Furthermore, Dathan, Abiram and On were of the tribe of Reuben, the first-born child of Jacob. These men had their own grudge, since Reuben had lost his birthright as the firstborn son to the sons of Joseph because of sin (note 1 Chron 5:1). 

What do we see here? Resentment (a function of pride and selfishness) leads to bitterness, which then leads to separation, then to uprising, then to accusation, then to rebellion against YHVH-ordained authority, then to attempted usurpation of authority. Eventually it leads to judgment and death. Is this not the path Lucifer took in his rebellion against YHVH Elohim—a method that he and his human minions (or useful idiots) continue to this day? (Read Isa 14:12–23.) As with Korah and company, the trajectory of this downward path leads to death. For some, the earth will open its mouth and they will be cast into the bottomless pit. For the rest of the unrighteous, unrepentant malcontents and rebels, their fate is to be cast into the lake of fire, where they will become ashes under the feet of the righteous.


Does the Old Testament Advocate Slavery? Absolutely not!

Leviticus 25:42, Slaves. The Hebrew word slaves or bondmen is ebed meaning “slave, servant, man-servant, worshiper (of Elohim), servant (of Elohim, e.g. Levite, priest or prophet).” Ebed derives from the basic Hebrew root word and verb, abad, meaning “to work or serve.” The word abab refers to service that can be directed toward people, things or Elohim. In biblical usage, if directed toward things, abad can refer to tilling the earth, dressing a vineyard, working flax or constructing a city. When abad is used in reference to serving YHVH it can refer to Levitical and priestly service. In Hebraic thought, such service is considered joyous, not bondage. This same service can be directed toward pagan deities as well. When used in reference to serving another man, abad transforms into the noun ebed meaning “slave or servant.” As discussed below and as pointed out by The TWOT, the concept of Hebrew slavery isn’t akin to the modern concept of slavery where the slave possesses no basic human rights. This was not the case in ancient Israel. The Hebrew slave, on the other hand, occupied a position of status involving rights and trust. The Torah required this to be case as this and other Torah passages demonstrate.

Leviticus 25:45, You may buy. This passage advocates “slavery” among the Israelites. Yet, this is not the slavery the American Negroes, for example, experienced prior to the Civil War. It must be remembered that slavery was rife in the ancient world (as it still is, illegally, today in many countries). Often slaves, however, were able to own homes and livestock and to maintain families as was the case with the Israelites in Egypt and the Jews in Babylon. In this case, these slaves were more like servants or feudal serfs. For example, in Israel, the Gibeonites became the slaves of Israel, but they continued to dwell in their own cities, and enjoy Israel’s military protection (Josh 9). Also, it must be remembered that when Israel conquered an opponents’ land or army, they often inherited slaves from those countries or slaves from other countries the conquered country itself had enslaved. What were the Israelites to do with these people who had been dispossessed of their lands? Send them back to countries that no longer existed, or to which they were no longer welcome? Send them back into heathen situations? Instead, YHVH allowed Israel to bring these captured people into Israel where they could live among a Torah-obedient people who worshipped the God of Israel, YHVH Elohim, where they would be taught to love Elohim totally and their neighbors as themselves. In time, these slaves would be assimilated into the tribes of Israel through intermarriage and become part of Israel and thus be elevated in their social status. In this sense, slavery was a means of evangelizing those who found themselves in the lowest echelons of the ancient world. It was ostensibly a way to bring them into the ways of the Torah thereby elevating them spiritually and socially from their previous enslaved heathen condition.

Leviticus 25:55, Servants [Heb. ebed]. The Hebrew word Ebed means “a servant or bondman” and derives from the word abad meaning “to work (in any sense), to serve, enslave, to be or keep in bondage, be a bondmen, do (use) service, to worship or obey. Obviously, as is the case with many Hebrew words, ebed and abad have a wide range of meanings from the slave and bondservant, who was at the lowest socio-economic level of ancient Israelite society to the Levitical priest (Num 4:19; 2 Chron 8:14) who found himself at the highest and most respected level of society. What is the greater and sublime spiritual truth that this verse teaches us? Simply this. All of YHVH’s people were once in bondage in the spiritual Egypt of their past life unable to escape their bondage to the world, the flesh and the devil. Then YHVH mercifully intervened and set us free and now we belong to him. The redeemed of YHVH must never forget that without his mighty arm of salvation, we would all still be slaves to Pharaoh, a symbol of Satan, and eternal death is the final outcome of this slavery. On the other hand, YHVH offers his redeemed saints eternal life if they will now serve and obey him. Is this not a whole lot better than what the devil has to offer his slaves? Is not faithful and obedient service the least that the saint can offer YHVH in gratitude for the great blessings and gifts that he offers those who accept him as their new Master—their loving Father in heaven?

Are my servants [or slave.] Here YHVH declares that “the children of Israel are my slaves [or servants, Heb. ebed], whom I have taken out of the land of Egypt—I am YHVH, your Elohim.” Here YHVH states dogmatically that he brought or redeemed the Israelites out of slavery to Egypt so that they could become his slaves. Does this trouble you? Being a slave of YHVH didn’t seem to trouble the apostles of Yeshua who referred to themselves many times as YHVH’s bondservants or slaves (e.g., Rom 1:1; Tit 1:1; Jas 1:1; 2 Pet 1:1; Jude 1:1; Rev 1:1). Perhaps their view of slavery is different than ours. Did they not see two categories of slavery and that all humans fall into one or the other category: slavery to the world, flesh and the devil that leads to death as compared to “slavery” to the Word and the Spirit of YHVH that leads to life? There is no escape. One is either a slave to the law of sin and death or to the law of the Spirit of life in Messiah Yeshua (Rom 8:1–2). Those who have been redeemed by the blood of Yeshua have become Yeshua’s purchased possession as Paul says in 1 Corinthians 6:19–20:

What? Know you not that your body is the temple of the Set-Apart Spirit which is in you, which you have of Elohim, and you are not your own? For you are bought with a price: therefore glorify Elohim in your body, and in your spirit, which are Elohim’s.

Do you live your life, make choices, do or don’t do things, say or don’t say things every day with the realty that your are a slave to YHVH? Is Yeshua truly your Lord and Master? It is easy to make the claims that he is, but living out the reality is a totally different things!


Deuteronomy 23 and 25—Natan’s Commentary Notes

More from Deuteronomy 23

Deuteronomy 23:9, Keep yourself from every wicked thing. An aspect of physical warfare or, more importantly as it pertains to the saint, in spiritual warfare that many Bible teachers who teach on the subject fail to cover is the spiritual state of the warrior.  The focus is usually on the enemy or the battle tactics employed, but, again, not on the condition of soldier who is going up against the enemy of the people of Elohim. This section of the Torah covers this oft-overlooked subject (vv. 9–14). 

The word wicked as found in this verse is the generic Hebrew word ra or ra’ah meaning in its most basic sense “evil, bad or distress.” So what does the Torah state in this passage that makes a person evil or bad and unclean and is thus offensive to Elohim? Simply this: bodily emissions that happen to naturally emanate from the human body whether it be human waste or seminal emissions. Such occurrences take a man from a state of ritually purity or being clean (Heb. tahor) to being unclean (Heb. tamay). The solution to the problem is, in the case of nocturnal emissions, cleansing by water, and in the case of the eliminations of bodily waste, burying the waste. What this teaches us it that if one goes into battle in an unclean state, this is offensive to Elohim, and the soldier may not have the favor of Elohim while he is engaging the enemy in battle. This is not a good thing for the warrior!

When it comes specifically to spiritual warfare (as outlined in 1 Cor 10:4–6 and Eph 6:10–18), the drash or homiletical level understanding of this passage teaches us that when engaging the enemy in spiritual battle, the saint must be as clean as possible spiritually. That means that all unconfessed sins need to be repented of and that all illicit behavior must be eliminated from one’s life if one expects the benefits of YHVH’s miraculous aid. One be continually washed clean of sin by the blood of Yeshua the Messiah and by the water of the Word and the Spirit of Elohim.

Because these principles of ritual and spiritual purity are usually not taught to the saints, it is no wonder that many times our prayers are not answered and that the enemy trounces Christians on the streets, in the courts, in the political arena and many other battlefields in various venues in our society. 

All this is to say that the saint must clean up his own act and house first before confronting the enemies of Elohim to do the same. Both Yeshua and Paul address the hypocrisy of those who point the fingers at others while guilty of the same or similar sins.

Judge not, that you be not judged. For with what judgment you judge, you will be judged; and with the measure you use, it will be measured back to you. And why do you look at the speck in your brother’s eye, but do not consider the plank in your own eye? Or how can you say to your brother, ‘Let me remove the speck from your eye’; and look, a plank is in your own eye? Hypocrite! First remove the plank from your own eye, and then you will see clearly to remove the speck from your brother’s eye. (Matt 7:1–5)

Therefore you are inexcusable, O man, whoever you are who judge, for in whatever you judge another you condemn yourself; for you who judge practice the same things. But we know that the judgment of Elohim is according to truth against those who practice such things. (Rom 2:1–2)

Deuteronomy 25

Deuteronomy 25:4, You shall not muzzle. According to Hirsch, this law applies not only to animals, but to workmen as well. It stands to reason logically, if YHVH cares about feeding animals while working, how much more should employers be concerned for their workmen? Rashi disagrees and says it refers only to animals (and not to workmen) and specifically to those animals that are involved in the production of food as would be the case with an ox that was used in treading out grain (to separate the kernel from the chaff). Paul disagrees with Rashi and views this Torah command as a more broadly applicable proverb implying that an employer should not deprive his employees of their wages. He specifically applies this principle to individuals who minster the gospel (1 Cor 9:9; 1 Tim 5:19). Those who work in YHVH spiritual field (the church), Paul reasons, should be supported by those they serve.

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The Five-Fold Ministry Explained

Did the so-called fivefold ministry offices cease after the New Testament era, or do they continue function in the body of Yeshua to this day? In our day, most people agree that the ministries of the evangelist, teacher and pastor are still in operation today, but many say that the offices of apostles and prophet have ceased to operate. Yet in verse 13, we read that these offices would operate “till we all come to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of Elohim, to a perfect man, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Messiah…,” which hasn’t happened yet. Therefore, it would stand to reason, that all these ministry offices are still needed today.

He. It must be kept in mind that Yeshua is the epitome of and over all (authoritatively) ministry offices that follow in this verse. When we ascended to heaven, he spread his own abilities out, as it were, among those he called to be leaders over his spiritual flock below (see Eph 4:8). Collectively, these ministry offices should be doing the work that Yeshua himself would be doing were he here on this earth presently.

Apostles. In addition to the twelve original apostles (including Matthias who replaced Judas Iscariot, Acts 1:26), here is a list of the other apostles, which might be called Yeshua’s ascension-gift apostles (Eph 4:8):

  • James, the half brother of Jesus and leader of the Jerusalem church (Gal 1:19)
  • Barnabas (Acts 14:14)
  • Paul (e.g. Acts 14:14)
  • Apollos (1 Cor 4:6–9)
  • Timothy and Silvanus (1 Thess 1:1 and 2:6)
  • Epaphroditus (Phil 2:25)
  • Titus, and other un-named apostles—at least two (2 Cor 8:23)
  • Andronicus and Junia (Rom 16:7)
  • Yeshua is the Apostle and High Priest of our confession (Heb 3:1)
  • Including Judas Iscariot, this makes a total of at least 26 apostles who are mentioned in the Testimony of Yeshua. 

With this list in mind, it now becomes logical to divide the apostles into at least three categories or level. Yeshua is the Chief Apostle. The original 12 that Yeshua appointed (minus Judas Iscariot) and possibly Paul would be the next tier. They are the foundational apostles. Yeshua mentions that the 12 apostles will rule over the 12 tribes of Israel and that the 12 foundations of the New Jerusalem are named after the 12 apostles (Rev 21:14). It seems that Yeshua commissioned these foundational apostles in direct, face-to-face encounters. After this come the lowest tier or ascension-gift apostles (Eph 4:8), which are all the other apostles.

Apostle Defined

Apostolos means “a delegate, messenger, one sent forth with orders.” According to the Theological Dictionary of the New Testamentapostolos originally was a military or naval term relating to an expeditionary force that was sent out or dispatched. It came to be applied to a band of soldiers, or colonists and their settlement as well as to the commander of the expedition or an admiral. A common feature of all the definitions of the word was its passive character. In none of the definitions is there any suggestion of initiative on the part of the apostle. The word denotes the quality of being sent. In the New Testament, apostolos always denotes a man who is sent with full authority and is synonymous with the Hebrew word shaliach as is evidenced in John 13:16. Here is a legal term relating to one who is lawfully charged to represent the person and cause of another. This meaning is confirmed by the juxtaposition in this verse of the Greek wordsdoulos/kurios and apostolos/pemptsas. Here the servant (doulos) stands under full jurisdiction of his master (kurios) and derives from him all that he is. Apostolos also denotes the “commissioned representative of a congregation” (Acts 13:2ff). Finally, the term signifies the “bearers or proclaimers of the NT message.” The latter meaning applied to not only the original twelve apostles that Yeshua commissioned and sent out, but to the first Christian missionaries or their most prominent representatives (Acts 14:414). According to Paul, the apostles (1 Cor 12:28f) aren’t officials of the congregation, nor the chief of such officials, but are officers of Yeshua by whom the church is built (ibid. vol 1, p. 407ff). 

Attributes of an Apostolic Ministry 

  • Elohim sets or appoints (puts in place, establishes) apostles (as he also does prophets, teachers, etc., 1 Cor 12:28).
  • An apostle is called by God, not men (Gal 1:1).
  • They minister in the power of God, not the wisdom of men (Mark 16:20 cp. 1 Cor 2:1–5).
  • Elohim appoints apostles by the revelation of the Holy Spirit and as confirmed by other established elders ( Acts 9:15Acts 13:2-4Acts 22:21).
  • An apostle is given a specific mission to a specific group of people (Gal 2:8–9Acts 13:2–4).
  • They are spiritual pillars (Gal 2:9).
  • They form part of the spiritual foundation of the church (along with prophets, Eph 2:20).
  • They lay spiritual foundations for others to build on (1 Cor 3:10).
  • They facilitate unity (along with the other five-fold ministries) within the body of Yeshua (Eph 4:11–13).
  • They help the body of Yeshua to mature, to grow up, and to be built up (Eph 4:11–13).
  • Apostles bring revelation to the church (Eph 3:5Gal 1:11–12).
  • Apostles establish, set, and correct doctrine (Acts 2:4215:19–30).
  • They raise up new ministries and ordain elders (Rom 15:20Acts 14:23).
  • They impart spiritual gifts (Rom 1:11).
  • They defend the gospel­—are defenders of the faith (Phil 1:17).
  • The apostles in the NT were persecuted and rejected or even killed for their service to the body of Yeshua (e.g. 1 Cor 4:11–13Luke 11:49Acts 5:1840). This is because they’re on the forefront of YHVH’s spiritual battle to advance his kingdom into the enemy’s territory.
  • One has to grow into becoming a fully function and a spiritually powerful apostle. Yeshua’s 12 apostles asked him to increase their faith (Luke 17:5Mark 16:15 cp. John 21:3 and Acts 2:14).
  • An apostle may initially not be baptized in the Spirit, but once having received this spiritual empowerment will be released into the full authority of the office, as was the case with the original 12 apostles.
  • Apostles take their marching orders directly from Yeshua (Acts 1:2).
  • Apostles have authority to pronounce judgment on sinners within the body of Yeshua (Acts 5:3–101 Cor 5:1–5).
  • Apostles work many signs and wonders (Acts 5:12).
  • Apostles lay down the doctrinal foundation within the body of Yeshua (Acts 2:422 Pet 3:2).
  • Apostles are often called to testify before secular and religious leaders (Acts 5:29).
  • Often apostles have to stay in the thick of the spiritual battle while the rest of the saints escape from harm’s way (Acts 8:1).
  • After the gospel is preached in an area, apostles are sent in to establish spiritual order and to plant congregations (Acts 8:14).
  • Apostles go into new areas to preach the gospel (Acts 13:1–14:7).
  • Apostles along with elders are called to help resolve conflicts within the body of Yeshua (Acts 15:26).

There are false apostles (2 Cor 11:13Rev 2:2).

He gave some to be …prophets. The Greek word prophetes translated as prophetsome 140 times in the NT and means “one who, moved by the Spirit of God and hence his organ or spokesman, solemnly declares to men what he has received by inspiration, especially concerning future events, and in particular such as relate to the cause and kingdom of God and to human salvation; of men filled with the Spirit of God, who by God’s authority and command in words of weight pleads the cause of God and urges salvation of men; in the religious assemblies of the Christians, they were moved by the Holy Spirit to speak, having power to instruct, comfort, encourage, rebuke, convict, and stimulate, their hearers.

According to the TDNTprophetes as it relates to the primitive church was inspired speech of charismatic preachers through whom Elohim’s plan of salvation for the world and his will for the life of individual believers was made known. The prophet knows something of divine mysteries (1 Cor 13:2), about Elohim’s saving will for the Gentiles (Eph 3:5f), and one of his chief concerns is to declare imminent eschatological events (Rev 22:6f). He also knows other aspects of the future (Acts 11:2821:10f). The prophet speaks on contemporary issues as well relating to the ministry of the gospel (Acts 13:1ff1 Tim 1:184:14), and edifies, comforts and exhorts the members of the body of Yeshua (1 Cor 14:3Acts 15:32). Through his preaching, he brings to light the secret wickedness of men (1 Cor 14:25). Since he speaks with a sense of God-given authority, he gives authoritative instructions (ibid., vol. 6, p. 848).

He gave some to be …evangelists. An evangelist (Gr. yoo-ang-ghel-is-tace) by definition is a bringer of good tidings or news, or one who heralds of salvation through the Messiah and who were not apostles. It derives from the word euanggelidzo meaning “to preach the gospel, bring or declare good tidings or news. This word occurs only three times in the NT (Acts 21:8 of Philip; Eph 4:11 as listed among the other “fivefold” ministry offices; and in 2 Tim 4:5 of Timothy). The TDNT says that this term denotes a function more than an office. In the NT, it appears that all apostles were evangelists, but not all evangelists were apostles, and that former was subordinate to the latter. They are more than mere missionaries, since they preach in and lead congregations as well (2 Tim 4:25; ibid., vol. 2., p. 736f).

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