We are pleased to announce that multiple sources from Israel have informed the world that the new moon has been sighted marking the beginning of the seventh month on the biblical calendar. This confirms that the biblical holy day (holiday) of Yom Teruah will occur tomorrow on Sunday, September 17, 2023.
We invite you to join my wife and I and our Zoom fellowship (Elim Fellowship Online) in celebrating Yom Teruah!
Psalm 91:1 (and the rest of Psalm 91) Is the Biblical 9-1-1 to Call in Our Time of Trouble!
Recently, the city of Lahaina in Maui, Hawaii was mostly destroyed by fire. A few years ago, Sandi and I spent a week in Lahaina enjoying this paradise on earth. Our hearts are deeply saddened and words cannot explain by this tragic disaster as well as the grief and sorrow of the Hawaiians who are trying to cope with the aftermath of it.
In an instant, anyone of us could find ourselves in such an unexpected situation as those in Lahaina—without home, material possessions, the necessities of life readily available to us, or even deprived of physical itself. There for the grace of YHVH go each of us continually! Each day of life is a blessing and a gift from the Almighty not to be taken for granted.
When you find yourself in an impossible situation, this is the time to look upwards. In fact, we should be doing this each day of our lives, so that when troubles hit us, we are already prepared mentally, emotionally and spiritually to call our direct line to heaven for help!
With these things in mind, let’s review Psalm 91 starting in 91:1, and what I call “the 9-1-1 of the Bible.”
Psalm 91:1, Secret [Heb. cethar]. This word refers to “a covering, shelter, hiding place or secrecy,” and is from the root word meaning “to hide or conceal.” When troubles comes our way like a tidal wave, the natural human reaction is to stand and fight, to freeze in fear, or flee in panic. In psychology this is known as the fight, freeze or flight response. The Bible teaches us there is both a time to fight and a time to flee (Eccl 3:1; Matt 24:16; 12:14 cp. Eph 6:14; Luke 19:13), but at all times we need to be hiding in the secret place of our relationship with our Almighty Father in heaven, to which the latter part of this verse alludes. Out of that place, and from under the shadow of the wings of the Almighty and in his throne room, we will not be cowering in fear from our enemies, but we will find the courage, will and stamina to stand firm in faith, and, if necessary, to come out and to fight the enemy not in our own strength, but in that of Elohim as led and guided by his Spirit.
The Most High [Heb. El-yon]. This is one of the descriptive titles of Elohim and signifying his exaltedness, overwhelming majesty and supremacy or omnipotence. As such, Scripture reveals that Elyon is the place of protection for Israel (Pss 9:2; 91:1, 9).
Abide [Heb. luwn].This wordmeans “to lodge, stop over, pass the night or abide.” A lodge is a place where one temporarily spends the night. When dark times come our way, we need to stop over, spend the night, run to and abide in the throne room of the Almighty! This speaks of prayer, worship, praise and studying the Word of Elohim.
Psalm 91:1, 4,Under the shadow of the Almighty…under his wings.(See notes at Ps 61:4.) According to the ancient Jewish sages, Moses composed this psalm for the tribe of Levi who dwelt under the shadow of the wings of cherubim that stood over the ark of the covenant in the Tabernacle of Moses—a physical representation of YHVH’s throne room in heaven. The sages go on to explain that the psalmist describes the devout man of faith who lives with Elohim in his heart, and who never leaves Elohim’s shadow. Such a man is a true biblical hero of faith to whom Elohim pledges (v. 16) he will satisfy with long life and show him his salvation (The ArtScroll Tanach Series Tehillim/Psalms Commentary on Ps 91). This psalm ends with the promise of the blessing of long life to those love and serve YHVH, and beyond that, salvation, which is the Hebrew word Yeshua—the very name of the coming Messiah who would offer his people deliverance from the ultimate enemy, namely sin and its death penalty. The result of this deliverance is the glorious divine gift of eternal life through faith in Yeshua the Messiah—the supreme gift and blessing of all! This psalm is a prophecy pointing to the Messiah.
In Jewish understanding, the Tabernacle of Moses wasn’t complete until the glory of YHVH’s presence took residence in the tabernacle’s inner chamber of the holy of holies. This was evidence that YHVH was making this habitation his own in a most intimate way. How was it possible, the sages ask, for the Creator of the universe to inhabit a mere tent? They explain that he focused his presence into this tiny spot. This isn’t unlike a magnifying glass that reflects the suns rays into a small but focused point on a piece of wood or paper. Were the earth closer to the sun, it would be burned up. Yet the sun’s light can be brought to the earth in a concentrated form that will not cause harm. This is exactly what Elohim did when he incarnated Yeshua into the womb of Mary. The sages had the understanding that the holy of holies is a picture of man’s heart that the Creator wants to indwell, which is the most sacred sanctuary of all.
The conception and birth of Yeshua was an ultimate fulfillment of this prophecy. The fire of the Set-Apart Spirit that came down upon the disciples on the day of Pentecost in Acts chapter two was also a fulfillment of this desire of YHVH of which the fiery glory cloud that dwelt in and over the Tabernacle of Moses was a prophetic portent. Yeshua promised his disciples that through this same divine fire he would dwell in their hearts after his death, resurrection and ascension. The result of this divine encounter of Elohim with those in the upper room resulted in many repenting of their sins and coming to faith in Yeshua the Messiah (Acts 2:38–41), which is the greater message of Psalm 91.
Psalm 91:2,He is my refuge [Heb. machseh]…fortress. This refuge is a literal shelter to which one flees in times of trouble to find hope. It is like a fortress.
In him I will trust [Heb. batach].This word connotes the feeling of safety, security and confidence to the point where one can be careless or exist without cares.
Psalm 91:3,Deliver [Heb. natsal].This word means “to snatch away, rescue, save, strip, plunder, to tear oneself away, deliver oneself, to be torn out or away, be delivered, to strip off or spoil.” The Hebrew word has a much more expansive meaning than the simple English word deliver. The idea here is not just delivering one from one’s enemies, but a stripping away from or spoiling one’s enemies. One can almost imagine an enemy who is bewildered by the unexpected action of the superior force of a deliverer who suddenly swoops in like a night raider and snatches away his illegally gained loot from out of his hand. This is what our Almighty Elohim promises to do for his children who abide under the shadow of his wings.
Snare of the fowler.This is literally referring to a bird trap and the trapper. In ancient times, birds were trapped and used for food. This could be a poetic picture of Satan and his demons who fly through the air searching for human prey. A biblical example of birds being metaphors for destructive and deceiving evil spirits can be found in Genesis 15:11 and Matthew 13:4 and 19. This verse, then, is a promise to the saint of protection from evil, demonic spirits.
These dates on the calendar link below are based based on the visible crescent new moon abib barley calendar. If the first century biblical calendar is new to you, I invite you to read my three articles on this subject as well as my several articles on the biblical feasts at https://www.hoshanarabbah.org/teaching.html#feast.
May Yehovah bless you as you love Yeshua by keeping his commandments, so that you may qualify to be his end times saints.
If ye love me, keep my commandments.…He that hath my commandments, and keepeth them, he it is that loveth me: and he that loveth me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. (John 14:15, 21)
And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of Elohim, and have the testimony of Yeshua the Messiah. (Rev 12:17, emphasis added)
Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Yeshua. (Rev 14:12, emphasis added)
Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in through the gates into the city. (Rev 22:14, emphasis added)
Perhaps you have heard the statement, “You are a spirit, and you have a soul that lives in a body.” Is this true, and if so, then what does it mean? Moreover, Paul the apostle in 1 Thessalonians 5:23 makes an interesting statement about the human makeup that appears to be more pagan Greek than biblical Hebraic in nature.
And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly; and I pray God your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless unto the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. (KJV, emphasis added)
What is your spirit? How is it different from your soul and your body? Sadly, there is much confusion in mainstream Christianity as to the difference between the soul and the spirit, the latter of which is not the same as the Holy or Set-Apart Spirit of Elohim which is part of the godhead. In fact, quite often, the terms soul and spirit are used interchangeably as if they were the same entity. As we shall see, the Bible does not present such a muddy view as to the nature of the spirit that is in each person. In fact, it has a lot to say about this subject.
Stay tuned. You are about to learn some things about yourself that you probably never knew!
In the quoted Bible verse above, each of the words body, soul and spirit are separated by the conjunction and. This same grammatical construction exists in the biblical Greek as well: “spirit and [Gr. kai] soul and [Gr. kai] body.” This shows Paul’s deliberateness at showing the separateness of these three components of a person’s makeup. In Paul’s mind, the soul and spirit of man were two separate entities. While the ancient Greek philosophers had a clear understanding of this, the Hebraic Bible writers seemed to have often conflated the idea of a person’s soul and spirit; that is to say, they didn’t clearly distinguish between the two. This doesn’t, however, mean that they didn’t understand the uniqueness of man’s spirit, as opposed to his soul, as we will soon see. What are we to make of this?
Thus, according to Paul, man is a tripartite being composed of a body, a soul and a spirit. In biblical Hebraic thought as presented in the Tanakh (Old Testament), the soul and spirit are virtually indistinguishable and the Hebrew words nephesh (soul) and ruach (spirit) are often used interchangeably. Paul, however, in his letter to the saints at Thessalonica, puts a finer point on the differences between the soul (or the mind, will and emotions of a person, or their unique personality) and their spirit by making a clear delineation between them. Moreover, as we shall learn, the spirit of man (or that divine spark in each person that) which each person receives most likely at conception (Zech 12:1), is subsequently and supernaturally energized by the Spirit of Elohim, when a person comes to faith in Yeshua the Messiah. It is one’s (personal) spirit that connects a person to Elohim, who is a Spirit (John 4:23–24; 1 Cor 2:10–14). Additionally, the separateness of man’s soul and spirit is specifically referred to in Hebrew 4:12 where we read,
For the word of Elohim is living and powerful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing even to the division of soul and spirit, and of joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart.
The fact that Paul mentions the spirit first in 1 Thessalonians 5:23 seems to suggest that YHVH created the spirit of man first, then his soul, and then placed both of them in a physical body.
Bible Scriptures That Speak of the Personal Spirit of Man
While the writers in the Tanakh may have made only an ostensible delineation between the soul and spirit of man, unlike the Greek philosophers or Paul and the writer of Hebrews did, there are several biblical passages in the Tanakh that clearly show that the ancient Hebrews understood that the spirit of man was different than his soul or mind, will and emotions. In fact, Job, the author of perhaps the oldest book in the Bible, as well as Moses, the one who codified the Torah in written form, and Solomon all understood this fact long before the Greek philosophers. Against this biblical contextual backdrop, and from the following Bible verses, we can see that Paul’s statement in 1 Thessalonians 5:23 no longer seems incongruent with the earlier Scriptures. Note the following:
The burden of the word of YHVH concerning Israel: Thus declares YHVH, who stretched out the heavens and founded the earth and formed the spirit of man within him. (Zech 12:1)
But it is the spirit in man, the breath of the Almighty, that makes him understand. (Job 32:8)
The spirit of man is the lamp of YHVH, searching all his innermost parts. (Prov 20:27)
And the dust returns to the earth as it was, and the spirit returns to Elohim who gave it. (Eccl 12:7)
And they fell on their faces and said, “O Elohim, the Elohim of the spirits of all flesh, shall one man sin, and will you be angry with all the congregation?” (Num 16:22)
The Spirit bears witness with our spirit that we are children of Elohim… (Rom 8:16)
But he who is joined to YHVH becomes one spirit with him. (1 Cor 6:17)
Elohim is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.” (John 4:24)
Now may the Elohim of peace himself sanctify you completely, and may your whole spirit and soul and body be kept blameless at the coming of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah. (1 Thess 5:23)
For who knows a person’s thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of Elohim except the Spirit of Elohim. (1 Cor 2:11)
For the word of Elohim is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing to the division of soul and of spirit, of joints and of marrow, and discerning the thoughts and intentions of the heart. (Heb 4:12)
And the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets. (1 Cor 14:32)
Besides this, we have had earthly fathers who disciplined us and we respected them. Shall we not much more be subject to the Father of spirits and live? (Heb 12:9)
They went on stoning Stephen as he called on the Lord and said, “Lord Yeshua, receive my spirit!” (Acts 7:59)
Therefore we do not lose heart, but though our outer man is decaying, yet our inner man is being renewed day by day. (2 Cor 4:6)
For just as the body without the spirit is dead, so also faith without works is dead. (Jas 2:26)
YHVH be with your spirit. (2 Tim 4:22)
To the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are registered in heaven, to Elohim the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect. (Heb 12:23)
A Person’s Spirit Is Supercharged at the Time of the Their Spiritual Regeneration
Even though every human is born with a personal spirit that acts as a sort of spiritual compass to guide him in a basic understanding of what is right and wrong, (Rom 2:14–16), the Bible reveals that one’s spirit is activated in a major spiritual way only when they receive the Spirit of Elohim at the time of their initial salvation.
Even the Spirit of truth; whom the world cannot receive, because it seeth him not, neither knoweth him: but ye know him; for he dwelleth with you, and shall be in you. (John 14:17)
But there is a spirit in man: and the inspiration of the Almighty giveth them understanding. (Job 32:8)
The spirit of man is the candle of YHVH, searching all the inward parts of the belly. (Prov 20:27)
When his candle shined upon my head, and when by his light I walked through darkness. (Job 29:3)
The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of Elohim. (Rom 8:16)
That he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man. (Eph 3:16)
But ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things.…But the anointing which ye have received of him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in him. (1 John 2:20, 27)
Hereby know ye the Spirit of Elohim: Every spirit that confesseth that Yeshua the Messiah is come in the flesh is of Elohim: And every spirit that confesseth not that Yeshua the Messiah is come in the flesh is not of Elohim: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come; and even now already is it in the world. (1 John 4:2–3)
But Elohim hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of Elohim. For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of Elohim knoweth no man, but the Spirit of Elohim. Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of Elohim; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of Elohim. Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of Elohim: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. (1 Cor 2:10–14)
The Defilement and Purification of One’s Personal Spirit
In two passages in the Testimony of Yeshua, Paul discusses how one’s inner man or personal spirit must be renewed spiritually.
For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day. (2 Cor 4:16)
And be renewed in the spirit of your mind… (Eph 4:23)
What in us has to be renewed regularly or (literally renovated)? It is true that each of us was born in sin or was born sinful (Ps 51:5), and that our soul (i.e., our mind, will and emotions) is the part of us that actually sins (Ezek 18:4). So what has to be renewed or renovated if our soul was sinful from the beginning of our life?
Evidently YHVH created something sin-free in us that became defiled along the way and needs to be renewed. If it is not our soul, than what is it ? It must be our personal spirit, which is the candle of YHVH (Prov 20:27). Renewed in what? In the knowledge of Elohim due to its being tainted by the soul of man, which has been influenced and corrupted by the world, the flesh and the devil, and which needs to be made perfect, completed, finished or brought to the end goal of perfection.
But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living Elohim, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are registered in heaven, to Elohim the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect [Gr. made complete], to Yeshua the Mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling that speaks better things than that of Abel. (Heb 12:22–24, emphasis added)
The tainting of man’s personal spirit is indicated in 1 Thessalonians 5:23, where we read,
Now may the Elohim of peace Himself sanctify you completely; and may your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah. (emphasis added)
Man’s spirit must be “preserved blameless.” Preserved is the Greek word tereo meaning “to guard, to keep, one in the state in which he is, to observe, to reserve or to undergo something.” This means that one’s personal spirit can be tainted, defiled or dirtied. Moreover, Job 7:11 not only differentiates between the spirit and the soul, butspeaks about the “anguish [or distress, narrowness, tightness] of my spirit” and “the bitterness of my soul.”
Therefore I will not restrain my mouth; I will speak in the anguish of my spirit; I will complain in the bitterness of my soul.
Obviously, man’s personal spirit can be distressed, wounded, hurt, oppressed or constrained by the negative influences and the trials of life. Here Job tells us that we can have negative emotions in both our soul and our spirit. It is highly likely that anguish in our spirit could degenerate into bitterness in the soul. This suggests that both our soul and our spirit need cleansing, healing and forgiveness. The fact that man’s spirit can be adversely affected or negatively influenced, or even defiled by one’s sinful soul is further corroborated in 2 Cor 6:18–7:1,
And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the YHVH Almighty. Having therefore these promises, dearly beloved, let us cleanse [Gr. katharizo] ourselves from all filthiness [or defilement] of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of Elohim. (emphasis added)
It is for these reasons that the spirit of man needs to be “renewed” (Col 3:10), “made perfect” (Heb 12:23), and “preserved blameless” (1 Thess 5:23).
Do not lie to one another, since you have put off the old man with his deeds, and have put on the new man who is renewed in knowledge according to the image of Him who created him… (Col 3:9–10)
But you have come to Mount Zion and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, to an innumerable company of angels, to the general assembly and church of the firstborn who are registered in heaven, to God the Judge of all, to the spirits of just men made perfect… (Heb 12:23)
Now may the Elohim of peace Himself sanctify you completely; and may your whole spirit and soul and body be preserved blameless at the coming of our Lord Yeshua the Messiah. (1 These 5:23)
Are the Human Conscience and the Personal Spirit Interconnected?
Perhaps you have heard the expression, “Let your conscience by your guide.” The implication is that deep inside of each person is an innate sense of what is morally right or wrong. Is there a connection between one’s conscience and one’s spirit and if so what is their relationship? Scripture has a few things to say about the conscience. It not only differentiates between the conscience and the mind, but also reveals that YHVH’s basic moral laws are written on the human conscience, which then informs the mind.
To the pure all things are pure, but to those who are defiled and unbelieving nothing is pure; but even their mind and conscience are defiled. (Tit 1:15)
Mind is the Greek word noos meaning “the intellect, that is, mind (divine or human; in thought, feeling, or will.” On the other hand, conscience is the Greek word suneidesis meaning “co-perception, that is, moral consciousness.” Evidently, the conscience is its own separate entity within a person’s makeup. Is it the same as one’s personal spirit, or at the least, interconnected with it?
For the past nearly two years, Nathan has been co-leading a live Zoom meeting three Shabbats/Sabbaths a month, and you’re invited to join us.
If you have no local fellowship and are looking for a loving, caring Hebraic-oriented, Yeshua-centered community with which to interact, you are welcome to come aboard. The Zoom app is free and easy to download and use via smartphone, computer or tablet.
During the meeting, Nathan usually does a teaching followed by a group discussion with Q and A. Others also share their insights, as well, and give extemporaneous teachings as led by the Spirit of Elohim. We also pray for each other, and have experienced many answered prayers, healings and infilling of the Spirit of Elohim. We also sing, praise and worship, and share testimonies and praise reports along the way.
If this is something that interests you, please email Nathan at firstname.lastname@example.org and share a brief written testimony of how you came to faith in Yeshua the Messiah as well as a brief synopsis of your journey into the more Hebraic aspect if things biblically.
We meet at 2:30 Eastern Standard Time US.
Nearly all of the recent videos that Nathan has posted on this blog and on his Hoshana Rabbah YouTube channel were given live at these meetings. The benefit of participating in the live Zoom meetings is that after the teaching is given, you can chat live with Nathan and the others in the group about his Bible teaching. You can also bring up other questions for discussion.
Six countries by plane, rail, bus, small boat, ship, taxi and a worn out pair of shoes—a trip of a lifetime for Sandi and me to celebrate 32 years and four children together. From Pisa to Pompeii, Barcelona to Rome, France to Florence and Andorra to Africa, the dust is still settling, and the head is still spinning from an epic trip. My cup runneth over. Now it’s time to reflect…
Wherever I go and whatever I experience, I am perpetually searching for deeper spiritual understanding. For me, it’s about going through life with an upward look, and a heart that desires to hear the voice of the One above. What is YHVH trying to teach me, how can life’s experiences mold and transform me into a more useful servant-tool in his hands? Ultimately, how will this help to advance his kingdom more effectively, and what wisdom and understanding is to be gained therefrom?
Gratefully, the obvious comes to mind. Safe travels from the time we exited our front door at 3 AM to catch an early plane flight eastward until we stepped back over the threshold of the same front door almost three weeks later. Take traffic, for example, and navigating big city streets. You think the traffic in L.A. or Jerusalem is bad, you’ve experience nothing until Rome! The melee of a gazillion pedestrians mingling with a zillion scooters, buses, cars, bicycles and trucks going everywhere at once. It’s a perpetually complicated dance between man and machine that the Italians have somehow mastered. Crosswalks and dividing lines between opposite traffic are mere suggestions, not the law—lines to color outside of to get from here to there more quickly. It’s an amazing miracle you don’t see more human pancakes laying squashed along the roadside, or smashed vehicles! Initially and justifiably, Sandi was reticent to enter this dance with possible death, but soon, she too was dodging and weaving the seemingly homicidal vehicles just like a native Roman. It’s either that, or “Sandi, I’ll meet you one the same street corner when I return to Rome sometime in the future!” By the grace of YHVH, we survived it all intact.
Weather conditions always seems to the first subject people ask about of travelers. So how was it? Again, we were blessed of YHVH. Exceptional mild, sunny spring weather the whole time. We experienced rain only twice. Both were short and violent outbursts rain squalls. For example, in Rome, we had just visited the Roman Forum and Colosseum, and were heading back on foot to our bed and breakfast a mile away via the Trevi fountain when the heavens let loose. Flooding in the streets is putting it mildly. But we made it back to the Trastevere neighborhood drenched, but nothing a hot shower afterwards couldn’t cure. The second time was after a tour of the Vatican complex where we experienced everything from the top of Saint Peter’s dome down to Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel. Once again, the heavens let loose, this time with thundering and lightening just overhead. (One could only wonder whether YHVH was trying to tell us how he felt about Greco-Roman, Constantine churchianity!) In the midst of the downpour, we pulled raincoats out of our daypacks, and I purchased a cheap umbrella from a street vendor for added good measure, but soon put it away for fear it would reverse itself in the gusty wind. Just as the storm intensified, we hurriedly sought safe refuge in the open doorway of an Italian ristorante along a narrow cobblestoned street. In a flamboyant Italian manner, the restauranteur warmly welcomed us in where we experienced our most sumptuous Roman meal to that point. Again the grace and provision of YHVH even in the smallest things. Otherwise, during our entire trip, no clouds obscured our views; they merely adorned the heavens above with their billowy beauty.
We successfully rendezvoused with all of our ten tours often after having to navigate narrow and windy cobblestoned streets and alleys with a GPS that failed to work. Dumb phones instead of smart ones! We toured Barcelona and travelled to the Pyrenees into France and Andorra. We then set a foot in the French Riviera for the day. Then it was off to Livorno, Italy for a quick jaunt into Florence and Pisa. Next we cruised to Tunis, Tunisia in Africa were we explored that city as well as the nearby 3,200 year old ruins of Phoenician and Roman Carthage. After that, we spent the day in Palermo, Sicily—an island the Italian boot seems to be kicking like a football across the Mediterranean Sea. Then it was up to Naples at the ankle of the Italian boot were we visited Sorrento and then the ruins of Pompeii located just below the eruptive Mount Vesuvius. Then we ended our cruising at an port east of Rome where we took a train to that city for the remaining five days of our trip. There we visited a number of the main sights including the Roman Coliseum and Forum and the Vatican complex.
First the overview of our trip, then the insights.