Exodus 12:23, Pass over. Heb. pasach/Jxp meaning “to skip over, limp, to be lame,” and hence, the Hebrew name for Passover, which is Pesach. The word pesach refers to both the lamb that was sacrificed on Passover day, and to the day itself.
Exodus 12:23, 27 cp. 6:6 (also Deut 5:15; 7:19), The destroyer…who passed over…he smote the Egyptians cp. Will redeem you with an outstretched arm. Who is the outstretched arm or YHVH? It is Yeshua (Isa 53:1 cp. Isa 52:10; 40:10; Ezek 20:34–35) who is at the right hand of Elohim (e.g. Rom 8:34; Col 3:1; etc.). We know that the preincarnate Yeshua, the Malak (mistranslated in most Bibles as Angel) or Messenger of YHVH led Israel through the wilderness. Likely, the preincarate Yeshua was the arm of YHVH’s judgment against Egypt’s firstborn, even as he will be the hand of Elohim’s judgment against the wicked in last days and at his second coming (Rev 19:15, 21).
Exodus 12:31, 33, Rise up, get you forth. YHVH was leading Israel out of Egypt, while Egypt was, at the same time, thrusting Israel out of that nation.
This verse marks the beginning of Israel’s exodus from Egypt. The later biblical prophets speak about end times Israel being scattered and enslaved in the nations of the world (i.e. Babylon the Great). However, as a result of a series of miraculous events and YHVH’s judgments against their captor nations, end times Israel is finally set free. Released, they will return to the Promised Land of Israel where Yeshua the Messiah will rule and reign over them. Many biblical prophets predict this glorious event happening, and the Jewish sages have tenaciously clung to this hope for two millennia. This event (actually, a series of events) has euphemistically been referred to as “the second exodus.” Many scriptures (e.g. Isa 11:10; 12:6; Jer 16:14–15; 23:7) refer to this when they prophesy of another exodus of Elohim’s people to occur in the last days which will be much larger in scope and will involve many more nations than the first exodus from Egypt.
Exodus 12:38, The mixed multitude. In the end times, the wheat and chaff or tares will be separated from each other in the wilderness of the peoples (Ezek 20:35–38). Yeshua discusses this purging process in his parable by the same name (Matt 13:24–30).
Exodus 13:3, Went out of Egypt…no leavened bread. What is the spiritual connection between coming out of Egypt and the memorial (v. 9) of eating unleavened flat bread? The keeping of the Feast of Unleavened Bread and the command to eat flat bread was to be an object lesson for successive generations Israelites as a sign and a memorial of what YHVH did against Egypt and of Israel’s deliverance (vv. 8–9). As the strong right arm of YHVH’s judgments (v. 3) pressed down upon proud and exalted Egypt until it was flattened as a nation, even so, YHVH’s judgment against the sin and idolatry in our lives demands that we become flattened, deleavened and contrite before him. He desires to squeeze or press out of us all the leaven of sin and pride that we have inherited from spiritual Egypt. In the Scriptures, since leavening puffs up and sours bread, it is a biblical metaphor for sin, which does the same to the human heart and mind. It causes bitterness, pride, insincerity, hypocrisy and giving rise to false teachings and doctrines of men. We must put out the leaven of sin from our lives and from our spiritual assemblies, as Paul admonishes. The Feast of Unleavened Bread pictures this process. The saints are to keep the feast not with the old leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth (i.e. the Torah, 1 Cor 5:8, read vv. 1–11 for context).
Exodus 13:18, 21, But Elohim led the people…and YHVH went before them…to lead the way. What are some other ways by which YHVH leads or speaks to his people?
- Through his Word (Ps 119:105)
- By his Set-Apart Spirit who leads us to into all truth (John 16:12)
- Through his divinely appointed leaders (Eph 4:11–16)
- By directing the steps (through life’s circumstances) of a righteous man (Ps 37:23–24; Prov 16:9)
- By directing the hearts of men (Prov 21:1)
- Through prophetic words (Num 12:6)
- Through dreams and visions (Num 12:6)
- Through wise counselors (Prov 24:6)
- Through Divine Messengers from heaven (e.g. Judg 6:11–14; 13:3)