Isaiah Chapters 12 to 28—Natan’s Commentary Notes

Isaiah 12 

Isaiah 12:2, LORD Yehovah. Heb. YAH YHVH. Yah (Strong’s H3050; TWOT 484b) is a contraction of YHVH (Strong’s H3068, see TWOT 484b) and is found some 50 times in the Tanakh. (For more on this subject, see notes at Ps 68:4.)

Isaiah 12:2–3, El is my salvation. The Hebrew word for salvation is Yeshua. Three times Isaiah declares that Yeshua is the actual name of coming Messiah, that he is El (i.e., deity), that he is the source of salvation for those Israelites who had been scattered around the world, and that through him these scattered Israelites would be regathered (Isa 11:11–12).

Isaiah 14

Isaiah 14:4, Proverb.Heb. maschal meaning “proverb, a parable containing an instructive point, an extended didactic discourse, byword, a public example (especially relating to someone involved in unorthodox behavior). In comparing the king of Babylon to Lucifer, Isaiah is using the mashal as a parable to illustrate a point. This is a similar literary device that Ezekiel employed when comparing the prince of Tyre to the anointed cherub in Eden who fell from grace in Ezekiel 28.

Isaiah 14:9, The dead.Heb. rephaim. This refers to the dead spirits or ghosts of the dead humans or the dead inhabitants of the netherworld. The rephaim are another name for the giants who were the demigod offspring of the fallen angels or sons of Elohim and the daughters of men. When these human giants died, the evil spirits (the fallen angel part) that inhabited the human bodies became the demons who continue to torment humans to this day.

Isaiah 14:12–21, Lucifer. Linking the king of Babylon to Satan can present a hermeneutical problem unless one interprets this passage metaphorically. If so, is there biblical precedence for doing so? Yes, for elsewhere in the Scriptures, Babylon is a metaphor for this world’s anti-Elohim system of which the ultimate spiritual head of that system is Satan himself (Rev 13:2,4 cp. Rev 17:5; 18:1–24; 20:1–3) who is the god of this world (2 Cor 4:4).

The name Lucifer means “morning star,” which is also a name for Yeshua the Messiah (Rev 22:16). This emphasized the fact that Satan as the great counterfeiter and imitator has as his basic strategy the impersonation of Yeshua. After all, in this Isaiah passage, he says, “I will be like the Most High….” To this point, elsewhere we read that Satan comes as an angel of light in attempts to deceive even the saints of Elohim (2 Cor 11:13–15). 

The parallels between Lucifer, the king of Babylon and the end times Man of Sin and Antichrist figure who plays a prominent role in the end times Babylon the Great worldwide system are striking. (For a discussion of this, see notes at 2 Thess 2:3–4.) Moreover, like the king of Babylon, Satan will fall from glory in defeat and will be cast into a pit and into the lake of fire (Luke 10:18; Rev 12:9; 20:1–3, 10).

Isaiah’s taunt of the king of Babylon in this passage goes to the heart of both the king’s and Satan’s rebellion against YHVH,which is pride. Both were attempting to deify themselves as the king of the earth, even as will the case with the end times Man of Sin, Antichrist figure along with the beast and whore systems with which he is aligned as revealed in Revelation chapters 13, 17 and 18.

Isaiah 17

Isaiah 17:5, Valley of Rephaim.This was a valley located east of Jerusalem, which produced abundant grain crops.

Isaiah 18

Isaiah 18:1–3, America in prophecy? In the chapter heading in some Christian Bibles, Isaiah chapter 18 is titled “Ethiopia.” Is this an accurate chapter heading? Isaiah 18:1 refers to “the land … which is beyond [on the other side of] the rivers of Ethiopia.” The traditional view among many biblical commentators (both from Christian and Jewish sources) is that this prophecy is referring to the area of modern Ethiopia, which is just south of Egypt. It is believed that the river mentioned in this passage is the Nile with its tributaries, while the ships are a reference to boats that regularly ply those waters, and the whirring wings refer to either locusts or to tsetse flies, which are abundant in that region. These same commentators offer various views on how this prophecy of Isaiah was fulfilled in ancient times. In these commentaries, no explanation was given of the meaning of the word sea in verse two and how that relates to Ethiopia, or how Ethiopia was a nation that was feared far and wide (verse 2). Perhaps another interpretation could be offered that would better fit the descriptions of the land and its people given in this prophecy.

It would be presumptuous to base our entire premise that America is in Bible prophecy on this passage alone, but united with other similar passages that speak clearly of end-time Ephraim, perhaps Isaiah 18:1–3 should be considered in this context. This is all the more plausible when we consider the fact that the scholarly views that this prophecy pertains only to ancient Ethiopia are from before the twentieth century when America was not yet a world power, and airplanes were yet to be invented. Also consider the fact that as rabbinic Jewish scholars do not know who end-time Ephraim is, so Christian scholars do not know who Ephraim is either. Neither group relates Ephraim to “Gentile” Christianity.

Now with some of these things in mind, let us take another look at Isaiah 18:1–3 and see how several well-known Bible translations render these passages.

Verse 1, This verse literally refers to “a land buzzing/whirring with wings” beyond Cush (Ethiopia, Africa), or to “clamorous wings” (ASET), or to “whirring wings” (NAS). Could this be a reference to the modern airplane and the role of aircraft in end-times America? Which nation on earth has more aircraft than America? Where was the airplane invented? What nation is the world’s leader in the aero-space industry and technology? Where can one not go in America without hearing aircraft overhead? What nation of people fly more than any other people?

Verse 2, This country sends ambassadors by sea, is a nation which has been feared from its beginning, is feared far and wide (KJV and NAS), is a powerful and oppressive nation (NAS) whose land is full of rivers meaning there are many mountains and lakes, as well—it’s a well-watered land, and it is a land where people speak a strange language. English is a very recently developed language! Additionally, America has been a mighty nation from its founding. It twice defeated the mighty British empire in the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812. America is also a land of many large and small rivers flowing out of numerous mountain ranges.

Isaiah 20

Isaiah 20:2–4, Sackcloth [or smock-frock and…sandals. Here Isaiah was clothed in the same manner as Elijah who wore a fur coat (2 Kgs 1:8 cf. Zech 13:4; Heb 11:37) and John the Baptist who wore a garment of camel hair and a leather belt (Matt 3:4). The word sackcloth in Hebrew is sac, which was course, dark linen or fur overcoat that was often worn by mourners against the skin or over the tunic and was kept tight to the body by a leather girdle (Keil and Delitszch on Isa 20:2).

Naked and barefoot. Among the lower classes, the tunic was the only garb worn in warm weather, while those of the higher class wore on outer garment over the tunic—at least in public. In the ancient Near East, a person was considered naked when only wearing a tunic. Such was the costume of a man who had been robbed or disgraced, or a beggar or prisoner of war, which was likely the case with Isaiah (cf. Mic 1:8; John 21:7). In other words, if one dressed scantily in ancient times he was looked up as being naked (Manners and Customs, p. 92; TWOT, p. 656; Keil and Delitszch on Isa 20:2). 

Isaiah 25

Isaiah 27:7, The surface of the covering. This is a cryptic passage. What does it mean? Other translations render it as follows:

The “Worldwide Web” Prophesied?

And on this mountain He will swallow up the covering which is over all peoples, even the veil which is stretched over all nations. (NAS)

On this mountain he will destroy the shroud that enfolds all peoples, the sheet that covers all nations. (NIV)

And swallowed up hath He in this mountain The face of the wrapping that is wrapped over all the peoples, And of the covering that is spread over all the nations. (YLT)

Before YHVH establishes his millennial kingdom on earth, he will have to remove something evil that has been covering the earth and its people like a veil. Is this referring to the web of lies that Satan and his Luciferian stooges on earth have woven to control the minds of earth’s inhabitants, so that they could accomplish their nefarious schemes to enslave the human population spiritually, economically and politically? Or could it refer to an electromagnetic web put in place by the global power elite or something similar that covers the earth to enslave the human population for its evil purposes of power and control? Maybe it’s both. Whatever it is, Yeshua will destroy it at his second coming.

The context of this passage is millennial. Chapter 24 prophesies of Elohim’s impending judgment on the whole earth followed by his reigning from Mount Zion in Jerusalem (v. 23). Chapter 25 continues the same prophecy. In verse nine, we read that, “We have waited for him, and he will save us…We will be glad and rejoice in his salvation [Heb. Yeshua].” This is speaking of the second coming of Yeshua and the establishment of his millennial kingdom on earth after having destroyed the end times Babylon the Great New World Order.

So what is this veil or web that will cover the earth like a veil in the end times just before the second coming of the Messiah that the Spirit of Elohim revealed to Isaiah the prophet? Well, we’re all familiar with the term, “the worldwide web.” In and of itself, this is not evil. It can be used for both good and bad purposes. The worldwide web or internet has been hugely instrumental in helping to spread the gospel and awaken lost and scattered Israel to return to its biblical roots and heritage. However, do you think that this pleases Satan and his minions who hate Elohim and his word, and don’t want to allow their developed technology to be used to counter the spirit of antichrist?

Don’t be surprised if controls aren’t put in place to greatly restrict or even curtail the use of the internet as a vehicle to spread the gospel. In the mean time, as the saying goes, “Make hay while the sun shines!”

But there’s more. In the book of Revelation we read about an end time Satanic world governing and economic system that will control the entire earth including all nations and most people. Satan the devil empowers this system (Rev 13:2), and many people will be so in awe of it that they will literally worship Satan and his antichrist new world order system (Rev 13:3–4). 

During this time, for three-and-one-half years, Satan and his human minions will wage war against the saints and will even overcome some of them (Rev 13:5–7). This will be a time of both great persecution and spiritual refinement for the saints of Elohim. Only those who patiently persevere will come through victoriously (Rev 13:10). This patient perseverance involves loving Yeshua and keeping his Torah-commandments (Rev 14:12). Satan will persecute those who don’t love Yeshua by keeping his Torah-commandments (Rev 12:17 cp. John 14:12; 1 John 2:3–6). 

An aspect of this persecution relates to “the image of the beast” by which “he deceives those who dwell on the earth” (Rev 13:14). At the same time, a false religious system that resembles a lamb, but which is a demonically inspired wolf in sheep’s clothing (Rev 13:11–12), will arise and join forces with the political and economic system that’s led by Satan and his minions as previously discussed. 

Through the combined efforts of the political, economic and religious systems several things will happen. False signs and wonders will occur that will be visible to all men (Rev 13:13). This will lead to the deception of earth’s inhabitants (Rev 13:14), and the image of the beast will be humanesque in appearance causing awe and wonderment among those who are deceived resulting in men worshipping it (Rev 13:14–15; 16:2). This demonic antichrist economic-political-religious system that controls the earth will force men to worship this image and receive this system’s mark or seal of approval and membership on their bodies, thus allowing them to participate (and survive) economically in it (Rev 13:16–17 cp. 19:20). This seal or mark will likely involve men being required to take an oath of allegiance such that they will have to deny the true Yeshua of the Bible in favor of the false antichrist messiah. James seems to be warning against this when he writes, “But above all, my brethren, do not swear, either by heaven or by earth or with any other oath. But let your ‘Yes,’ be ‘Yes,’ and your ‘No,’ ‘No,’ lest you fall into judgment.” (Jas 5:12). This is why those who take the Antichrist’s mark will never have a chance at eternal life in Elohim’s kingdom, but are destined for the lake of fire (Rev 14:11 cp. 20:1–15).

In light of the prophecies of the Bible discussed above, and in light of the recent advances in modern science, it seems likely that modern biometric, instant digital communication and artificial intelligence combined with robotic nanotechnology involving the internet of all things (or IOT) will all come together to form a global oligarchic technocratic net or veil over this earth that will politically, economically and spiritually attempt to control all life to the exclusion of the true saints of YHVH-Yeshua the Messiah. 

This is coming upon us like a freight train, and it seems that thousands of years ago, YHVH may have revealed this to Isaiah the prophet. 

Sadly, however, most people, including the Torah-obedient disciple of Yeshua, are too sound asleep in their spiritual complacency eating, drinking, giving in marriage and pursing their middle class lifestyles to give any of this much thought. They are modern day obscurantists. The Bible calls them Laodiceans. They don’t have time to study their Bibles, to fast or to pray, but they sure have time to plan their vacations, play their video games, talk to their “friends” on social media and watch NetFlix! As long as they’re smugly wearing their Christian, Messianic or Hebrew Roots label for all to see, they feel they’ve done their duty. Yeshua called them white-washed sepulchres and empty cups! He said, “You draw near with your lips, but your hearts are far from me.” Peter called them clouds without water! John refers to them as naked, blind, poor and miserable.

Of course, none of this applies to anyone reading this. It’s always the other guy. Right?!?

Isaiah 26

Isaiah 26:3, Peace. Heb. shalom. This word is spelled in its undiminished form (i.e. shin, lamed, vav, mem sofit) here containing the Hebrew letter vav (as opposed to other places in the Hebrew Scriptures where shalom is spelled deffectively [i.e. shin, lamed, mem sofit] without the letter vav denoting an incomplete or human-originated peace). What can we learn from this interesting anomaly that is not visible in our English Bibles?

This verse is referring to that deep and inner soul-quenching peace of Elohim that passes all understanding that comes through a relationship with Yeshua the Messiah (Phil 4:7)—the fruit of the Spirit, as opposed to human or earthly, temporal peace. This peace comes because of our salvation through Yeshua, which is our spiritual bulwark and wall as stated in verse one. This is the same peace that Yeshua talked about when he said, “Peace I leave with you, My peace I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you. Let not your heart be troubled, neither let it be afraid” (John 14:27).

If you don’t know this peace that calms the storms in your heart and mind, forgives sin, takes away all one’s shame and guilt and replaces it with love, joy, peace, hope and assurance of eternal life after you die, then now is the time to put your faith in Yeshua the Messiah, repent of your sins and love and obey him for the rest of your life. As the saying goes, know Yeshua, know peace; no Yeshua, no peace.

Isaiah 27–29

Isaiah 26: 27:6–8:13 and 29:22–23,

YHVH Speaks Out Against Assimilation With the World

The prophet Isaiah wrote his rebukes of Ephraim (the Northern Kingdom, 27:6–28:6) and of Judah (the Southern Kingdom, 28:7–13) during the time period after the fall of the Northern Kingdom to Assyria in 721–723 B.C. and before the fall of the Southern Kingdom to Babylon in 586 B.C.

Isaiah 27:9, Groves/asherim and sun images /pillars. In this passage, Isaiah denounces the people of Ephraim for their worship of pagan deities. If Isaiah were alive today, what pagan practices within the Christian church would rankle his ire?

Isaiah 28:7, The priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink … wine … they err in vision, they stumble in judgment.Here the prophet is addressing Judah. In Scripture, when wine causes spiritual degradation what is the cause of this? (Read Revelation 14:8; 17:2; 18:3.) Wine is the stuff of spiritual harlotry. What does YHVH plead with his people to do in this regard? (Read Rev 18:4.)

Through the lips of his prophets, YHVH not only bring words of rebuke and judgment to his people, but also words of encouragement. Isaiah speaks of a time when not only will YHVH discipline his people for their idolatrous ways, but he will bring them back from exile and restore them as a people to worship him (instead of pagan deities) in their own land. In this regard, study the following passages: Isaiah 27:12–13; 28:5–6; 29:22–23. Have these prophecies yet been fulfilled with regard to both houses of Israel (Ephraim and Judah)?

What are some examples of humanist or pagan influences that persist in the modern Christian church (Ephraim) and in Rabbinic Judaism (Judah), which could lead to YHVH’s judgment? Here are a few examples to ponder:

Rabbinic Judaism and Secular Humanism

Rabbinic Judaism went humanist at Yavneh after the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70 when rabbinical authority replaced the Levitical authority. It was there, under the influences of such rabbis as Akiba, that Judaism rejected divine authority and established the rabbinical system. Some say this was necessary to insure the survival of Judaism in the wake of the destruction of the Temple and removal of Jews from Jerusalem and environs by the Romans after A.D. 135. But this reason does not explain why or how so many Jewish traditions supplanted the truth of the Bible before this time. Yeshua makes reference to this in Matthew 15:1–9. Rabbinic authority often supplanted the Word of Elohim. “The Jewish Encyclopedia” defines ‘Rabbinical Authority’ as ‘The power or right of deciding the Law, in dubious cases, or of interpreting, modifying, or amplifying, and occasionally of abrogating it, as vested in the Rabbis as its teachers and expounders’” (Rabbi Akiba’s Messiah, Daniel Gruber, p. 82, emphasis added). Some examples of this are as follow:

  • The concept of the “Oral Torah/Law” came into being sometime in the second-century A.D. as being on a par with or greater than the Written Torah (Gruber, pp. 60, 76–77). This led to the traditions of the elders, which were eventually codified in the Mishnah and Talmud.
  • YHVH is subject to rabbinic halachic (legal) rulings (ibid., pp. 76–77).
  • There are many rabbinic decrees and rulings that supplant biblical law. This was especially the case after the destruction of the Temple when the Jewish religious leaders practically reinvented their religion (ibid., p. 78). Examples of this are:
  • Alternative means of atonement (the shedding of blood is no longer necessary; atonement is achieved through prayer [tefilim], charitable deeds [mitzvot] and charitable giving [tzedakah]) along with other activities such as study of the Torah, being circumcised and giving to the Jewish “rabbis” (ibid.).
  • In Matthew 23 (along with Matt 15:3–9 and Mark 7:7–13), Yeshua rebukes the Jewish leaders of his day for replacing YHVH’s Torah with man-made traditions.
  • The Jewish leaders or sages are allowed to make pronouncements from Moses’ Seat or by beit din (rabbinic) ruling (called takanot and ma’asim) that totally annulled the Torah (Gruber, pp. 80–81; The Hebrew Yeshua Versus the Greek Jesus, Nehemiah Gordon, pp. 47–53). Later these rulings were codified into the Talmud (Gordon, p. 52).
  • The sages have the right to change and control the calendar. The modern rabbinic or traditional Hebrew calendar dates to A.D. 360. For example, many times, according to the rabbinic calendar Rosh Chodesh (the new moon) does not fall on the actual day the new moon is sighted, and Yom Teruah (the Day of the Shofar Blowing ), which Torah states must fall on the first day of the seventh month (i.e. the rosh chodesh of that month), does not actually occur on rosh chodesh.
  • One month on the Jewish calendar is named after a pagan deity (Tammuz) when the Torah specifically states that Israelites are not to take the name of pagan deities on their lips.
  • Rabbinic law allows a divorced and remarried woman to remarry her first husband, something Torah forbids (Gruber, p. 81).
  • The Jewish sages instituted the laws of postponement, which says that YHVH’s feasts cannot fall on certain days, and therefore have to be postponed.
  • The sages teach that baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), a leavening agent, is permissible to eat during the Days of Unleavened Bread when Torah demands that we abstain from all bread containing leavening agents.
  • The wearing of all white tzitzits (fringes) have replaced the Torah law that says they must have a blue thread.
  • Torah says that Israelite lineage is determined by one’s father. Modern rabbinic law says that it is determined by one’s mother.
  • The ineffable name doctrine, which states that using the Hebrew names of Elohim (e.g. YHVH) are prohibited, even though Scripture commands that we use them and not forget them.
  • Singing and playing of musical instruments is prohibited under rabbinic law at religious services (Sabbath and appointed times), yet the Torah commands that the shofar be blown on these days, and the Psalms speak of it occurring, and the biblical record states that music and singing were a big part of the Levitical priesthood system in the Temple (Jewish Book of Why, Alfred J. Kolatch, p. 143).
  • The shofar is never blown on the Sabbath, even when the Day of Shofar Blowing falls on a Sabbath, even though Torah commands us to do it (Kolatch, p. 228).
  • The anti-missionary movement within Judaism is the outgrowth of humanist philosophy, for it attempts to destroy the deity of Yeshua and rejects the authority and divine inspiration of the Renewed Covenant Scriptures.

Christianity and Secular Humanism

Christianity is not to be outdone by rabbinic Judaism when it comes to replacing the Word of Elohim with the traditions of men. To the degree that Christianity has rejected Torah, replacing it with men’s traditions, is the degree that it is a humanistic religion. Christianity is becoming more humanistic all the time. That is why modern-day “prophets” like Francis Schaeffer attempted to warn the church about the perils of secular humanism. Here are some areas where the modern church has succumbed to the influences of the philosophy of secular humanism:

  • The Catholic Church makes pronouncements ex cathedra (from the chair of papal authority) to establish doctrines and traditions that are contrary to Scripture. 
  • The establishment of pagan-based Christian holidays that have replaced YHVH’s biblical feasts. This is a form of interfaithism and syncretism with other pagan religions.
  • Sunday replaced the Sabbath as a day of formal gatherings and worship (more syncretism with pagan religions)
  • Other examples of syncretism with idolatrous pagan concepts: steeples on churches, Christmas trees, Santa Claus, Easter hams and bunnies, 40 days of Lent, Mardi Gras.
  • Humanistic Christian doctrines include the concept of law versus grace, dispensational/dual covenant theology, and Old versus New Testament, which originated from the pagan (Greek) concept of dualism.
  • Seeker sensitive churches; becoming like the world to win the world to Christ (adopting the world’s dress and hair styles, music, entertainment, etc.).
  • The positivization of the gospel message; that is, a de-emphasis on sin, judgment and repentance. 
  • Preaching a social gospel: sermons are often pop-psychology messages to build up one’s self-esteem.
  • Changes in terminologies: biblical terms give way to “politically correct,” “seeker sensitive” terms: e.g., the heathens are now called “the unchurched,” forgiveness replaces repentance, puppet shows/skits and dramas replace hard preaching, sin is called “wrong thoughts.”
  • The Word of Faith movement: health and wealth (prosperity) teaching (heavy emphasis on materialism and gratification of the lust of the flesh for enjoyment in the here and now.
  • Christian (Charismatic) “divination” or “witchcraft” occurs where Christians take the legitimate gifts (especially the gift of prophecy) of the Spirit of Elohim, and a) use them to control or manipulate other people for unrighteous purposes, b) operate in counterfeit gifts of the Spirit (either out of their psyches or souls—i.e., their mind, will and emotions, or under demonic influence) to control, manipulate or subvert others for unrighteous purposes, or c) attempt to ascertain the future through means other than direct revelation of the Spirit of Elohim, as he wills to make the future known to human vessels (1 Cor 12:11).
  • Idolatry of formulas, programs and methodologies that are unbiblical (e.g., saying Sinners Prayer to be saved, the Four Spiritual Laws, give-to-get, the obtaining of Christian degrees, labels and accolades of men is the key to spiritual success and giftedness.

Isaiah 28 

Isaiah 28:11, Stammering lips and another tongue. Or “stammering lips and with alien tongue” (NRSV), “foreign tongue” (NAS), “strange tongue” (NIV), “with unintelligible speech and in another tongue” (ASET). This prophecy is a judgment against the leaders of Ephraim (Israel’s northern kingdom, verse 1) and against the leaders of Judah (Israel’s southern kingdom, verse 14). This is a prophecy likely referring to the fact that as part of their judgment, YHVH would speak to Israel through the tongues of their captors, and that even portions of the Word of Elohim would be translated or written in the foreign tongues of those same nations (i.e., in Aramaic — parts of Daniel and the Targumim, and in Koine Greek — the New Testament). (See Keil and Delitzch on this.) Paul even applies this verse to the gift of tongues (1 Cor 14:21). This prophecy of Isaiah was fulfilled on the day of Pentecost when the those Hebrew-speaking Jewish believers who were filled with the Spirit of Elohim, spoke in foreign languages (Acts 2:4–11).


9 thoughts on “Isaiah Chapters 12 to 28—Natan’s Commentary Notes

  1. This world wide control may also have to do with the 5g system that is going up around the world. The so called vaccines could be triggered by frequency and connect people to the internet of all things for buying and selling. The great reset is in play and all the world is moving in its direction. Ephesians 2: 2-4!

  2. same thing,I thought of 5G technology
    the purpose of social distancing
    is so that people when they are far-apart
    could me monitored easily by 5G technology &
    Italian doctors say that 5G frequency radiation
    could increase Covid.

  3. Isa 14:9->. I really jumped a little when seeing that you believe in the “nephilim” teaching that stems from the book of Enoch. Is that a book for Bible-only believers? Angels are spiritual creations and cannot mate with humans. Satan can “twist human minds” by deceptions, but not make a child in a womans womb.
    In loving respect

    • Hebrews 13:2. Different angels have different roles and can fool humans as to their origin and abilities. It is a mistake to assume scriptures don’t mean what they say!

    • The Bible nowhere states that angels cannot mate with humans. Yeshua said that the righteous angels will not marry in his kingdom; he did not say they can’t. Let us not jump to conclusions and read into the Words of the Bible things that are not there. I encourage you to read Dr. Michael Heiser’s book, “Reversing Hermon.” Until I read this book, I took a naturalistic view of Genesis 6:4 as well, but Heiser, an excellent biblical scholar, convincingly shows how a supernaturalistic view of Gen 6:4 was the prevailing view in the second temple era including that of Yeshua and the apostolic writers as proven numerous times in
      Scripture. It wasn’t until much later that the Roman Catholic Church rejected this view and the Protestants adopted it to this day.

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